King Charles III Coronation Gold Coin Westminster Abbey Coronet Queen Camilla UK • $10.48 (2024)

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Seller: checkoutmyunqiuefunitems ✉️ (4,137) 99.9%, Location: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 276538778307 King Charles III Coronation Gold Coin Westminster Abbey Coronet Queen Camilla UK. King Charles III Coronation Coin Has never been removed from case Uncirculated Gold Plated Commemoration Coin Has the Royal Crown inside a Reef With the words "His Majesty King Charles III" & "God Save the King" The other side has an image of King Charles the third in military uniform holding Royal Regalia next to an image of Westminster Abbey where he was crowned it also has his CR Royal Cypher with the words "Coronation of King Charles III" and the date "6th May 2023" The coin is 40mm in diameter, weighs about 1 oz The coin you will recieve would have never been taken out of air-tight acrylic coin holder Deluxe Coin Jewel Case. 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Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra King Charles III, the new monarch Published 27 April Share Related Topics Coronation of King Charles III King Charles III IMAGE SOURCE,GETTY IMAGES At the moment the Queen died, the throne passed immediately and without ceremony to the heir, Charles, the former Prince of Wales. He becomes a monarch at the age of 73. But there are a number of practical - and traditional - steps which he must go through to be crowned King. Who is Charles? Charles was born at Buckingham Palace on 14 November 1948. He was 4 years old when his mother was crowned as Queen Elizabeth II. Instead of being tutored at the palace, his education was in school. He attended Hill House in West London, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire and Gordonstoun in Eastern Scotland. In 1969, at the age of 20, he was invested by the Queen as Prince of Wales at Caerfarnon Castle. Before the investiture, the then prince learnt Welsh at University College of Wales in Aberystwyth. Royal Family tree and the order of succesion Family life He married Lady Diana Spencer on 29 July 1981 at St. Paul's Cathedral in London. From that marriage they had two sons: Prince William, born on 21 June 1982; and Prince Harry, born on 15 September 1984. Their marriage was dissolved on 28 August 1996, although The Princess of Wales continued to live at Kensington Palace and to carry out her public work. Lady Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. On 9 April 2005, he married the Queen Consort Camilla in a civil ceremony at the Guildhall, Windsor. What will he be called? He will be known as King Charles III. That was the first decision of the new king's reign. He could have chosen from any of his four names - Charles Philip Arthur George. He is not the only one who faces a change of title. Prince William and his wife Catherine are now titled Duke and duch*ess of Cornwall and Cambridge, and the king has conferred on them the title of Prince and Princess of Wales. There is also a new title for Charles' wife, Camilla, who becomes the Queen Consort - consort is the term used for the spouse of the monarch. Formal ceremonies Charles was officially proclaimed King on the Saturday following the Queen's death. This event took place at St James's Palace in London, in front of a ceremonial body known as the Accession Council. This was made up of members of the Privy Council - a group of senior MPs, past and present, and peers - as well as some senior civil servants, Commonwealth high commissioners, and the Lord Mayor of London. The Accession Council has two parts and King Charles was only present for the second. Prince Charles file photo IMAGE SOURCE,PA MEDIA Around 200 privy counsellors attended the ceremony - the same number who attended the last Accession Council in 1952. In the first part of the meeting, the death of Queen Elizabeth was announced by the Lord President of the Privy Council (currently Penny Mordaunt MP), and the proclamation was read aloud. It included a series of prayers and pledges, commending the previous monarch and pledging support for the new one. The proclamation was then signed by a number of senior figures including the prime minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Lord Chancellor. It was read aloud from a balcony above Friary Court in St James's Palace and for the first time since 1952, the national anthem was played with the words "God Save the King". The grand ceremony that announced Charles as new king The King's first declaration King Charles attended the second meeting of the Accession Council, along with the Privy Council. This was not a "swearing in" at the start of a British monarch's reign, in the style of some other heads of state, such as the president of the US. Instead the King made a declaration to uphold the constitutional government and - in line with a tradition dating from the early 18th Century - he made an oath to preserve the Church of Scotland. Queen Elizabeth II crowns her son Charles, Prince of Wales, during his investiture ceremony at Caernarvon Castle. 1969 IMAGE SOURCE,GETTY IMAGES Image caption, Queen Elizabeth II crowned her son Charles as Prince of Wales in 1969 1px transparent line After this the Accession Council concluded. The proclamation announcing Charles as the King was later read out in Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. The Coronation The symbolic high point of the accession will be the Coronation, when Charles is formally crowned. Because of the preparation needed, the Coronation is not likely to happen very soon after Charles's accession - Queen Elizabeth succeeded to the throne in February 1952, but was not crowned until June 1953. For the past 900 years the coronation has been held in Westminster Abbey - William the Conqueror was the first monarch to be crowned there, and Charles will be the 40th. It is an Anglican religious service, carried out by the Archbishop of Canterbury. At the climax of the ceremony, he will place St Edward's Crown on Charles's head - a solid gold crown, dating from 1661. This is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels at the Tower of London, and is only worn by the monarch at the moment of coronation itself (not least because it weighs a hefty 2.23kg - almost 5lbs). Unlike royal weddings, the coronation is a state occasion - the government pays for it, and ultimately decides the guest list. Royal Family on Balcony at Buckingham Palace, London, pictured after Coronation, 2nd June 1953. IMAGE SOURCE,MIRRORPIX / GETTY IMAGES 1px transparent line There will be music, readings and the ritual of anointing the new monarch, using oils of orange, roses, cinnamon, musk and ambergris. The new King will take the Coronation oath in front of the watching world. During this elaborate ceremony he will receive the orb and sceptre as symbols of his new role and the Archbishop of Canterbury will place the solid gold crown on his head. Everything you need to know about King Charles III's coronation Head of the Commonwealth Charles has become head of the Commonwealth, an association of 56 independent countries and 2.5 billion people. For 14 of these countries, as well as the UK, the King is head of state. These countries, known as the Commonwealth realms, are: Australia, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, St Christopher and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, New Zealand, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu. Coronation of Charles III and Camilla Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Page semi-protected From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Coronation of Charles III and CamillaKing Charles III and Queen Camilla during the coronation procession in the Gold State Coach. Charles and Camilla on the front balcony of Buckingham Palace Date 6 May 2023 Venue Westminster Abbey Location Westminster, London, United Kingdom Participants King Charles III Queen Camilla Great Officers of State Bishops of the Church of England Selected members of the armed forces of the Commonwealth Heralds of the College of Arms and the Lyon Court Peers of the Realm Faith representatives Arrests See below Website coronation.gov.uk Edit this at Wikidata The coronation of Charles III and his wife, Camilla, as king and queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms, took place on 6 May 2023 at Westminster Abbey. Charles acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022 upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. The ceremony was structured around an Anglican service of Holy Communion. It included Charles taking an oath, being anointed with holy oil, and receiving the coronation regalia, emphasising his spiritual role and secular responsibilities.[a] Representatives of the Church of England and the British royal family declared their allegiance to him, and people throughout the Commonwealth realms were invited to do so. Camilla was crowned in a shorter and simpler ceremony. After the service, members of the royal family travelled to Buckingham Palace in a state procession and appeared on the palace's rear and front balconies. The service was altered from past British coronations to represent multiple faiths, cultures, and communities across the United Kingdom; it was shorter than Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953, and had a peak UK television audience of 20.4 million. The coronation elicited both celebrations and protests in the United Kingdom, with surveys carried out in April 2023 suggesting that the British public was ambivalent towards the event and its funding. Celebrations included street parties, volunteering, special commemorative church services, and a concert at Windsor Castle on 7 May. The events in London and Windsor drew large crowds, but were also protested against by republican groups. There were 52 people arrested on suspicion of offences related to protesting, drawing criticism from Human Rights Watch. The response in the other Commonwealth realms was similarly mixed; while there were many celebrations, some governments and indigenous groups took the opportunity to voice republican sentiments and call for reparatory justice. Charles and Camilla's coronation was the first of a British monarch in the 21st century and the 40th to be held at Westminster Abbey since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066.[1][b] Unofficial estimates for the event's cost range from £50 million to £250 million. Preparation Background Charles III became king immediately upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II, at 15:10 BST on Thursday 8 September 2022. He was proclaimed king by the Accession Council of the United Kingdom on Saturday 10 September,[3] which was followed by proclamations in other Commonwealth realms.[4] During Elizabeth's reign, planning meetings for Charles's coronation, codenamed "Operation Golden Orb", were held at least once a year, attended by representatives of the government, the Church of England, and Charles's staff.[5][6][7] Service and procession Order of service for the coronation The organisation of the coronation was the responsibility of the earl marshal, the Duke of Norfolk.[8] A committee of privy counsellors arranged the event.[9][7] On 11 October 2022, the date of the coronation was announced as 6 May 2023, a choice made to ensure sufficient time to mourn the death of Queen Elizabeth II before holding the ceremony.[10][7] A Coronation Claims Office was established within the Cabinet Office to handle claims to perform a historic or ceremonial role at the coronation, replacing the Court of Claims.[11] The posts of lord high steward and lord high constable of England, which are now only named for coronations, were given to General Sir Gordon Messenger and Admiral Sir Tony Radakin, respectively.[12] The holy anointing oil used in the service was consecrated at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on 6 March 2023 by Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem, under the supervision of Hosam Naoum, the Anglican archbishop of Jerusalem. It was based on the same formula as the oil used in the coronation of Elizabeth II, but without animal products such as civet.[13][14][15] Military dress rehearsals took place on 17, 18, and 19 April.[16][17] On 3 May, Charles and Camilla, William, Prince of Wales, Catherine, Princess of Wales, their children, and Anne, Princess Royal, attended coronation rehearsals at Westminster Abbey.[18] Westminster Abbey was closed to tourists and worshippers from 25 April for preparations, and would not re-open until 8 May.[19] As at previous coronations, many attendees had an obscured view, as the abbey's nave was filled to capacity.[20] Guests Main article: List of guests at the coronation of Charles III and Camilla Countries that sent representatives The coronation was a state event funded by the British government, which also decided the guest list.[21] Approximately 2,200 guests from 203 countries were invited.[22] They included members of the British royal family, representatives from the Church of England and other British faith communities, prominent politicians from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, and foreign heads of state.[23] The number of British political attendees was reduced significantly from 1953, when virtually the entire Parliament of the United Kingdom attended.[24] Invitations were extended to 850 community and charity representatives, including 450 British Empire Medal recipients and 400 young people, half of whom were nominated by the British government.[25] Following a tradition dating from 1189, fourteen barons of the Cinque Ports were also invited.[26] Safety regulations at Westminster Abbey restricted the number of guests, as in contrast to earlier coronations no temporary stands were erected in the building.[27] Charles meeting foreign dignitaries invited to the coronation during a reception prior the ceremony In addition to the coronation, several dignitaries invited to the event also attended related gatherings hosted by Charles on 5 May in London. Several receptions were hosted by Charles on that day, including one for dignitaries from the Commonwealth realms at Buckingham Palace, and another reception at Marlborough House for all the leaders of the Commonwealth of Nations.[28][29] In the evening, the King hosted a reception for foreign royalty and other overseas dignitaries at Buckingham Palace,[30] and family members and guests also attended a reception at Oswald's.[31] Vestments and crowns In a break with tradition, Charles's coronation vestments (ceremonial clothes) were largely reused from previous coronations instead of being newly made.[32][33] While it is customary for the supertunica and robe royal to be reused, Charles also wore vestments first used by George IV, George V, George VI, and Elizabeth II. Camilla similarly reused vestments, including Elizabeth II's robe of state, but also wore a new robe of estate featuring her cypher, bees, a beetle, and various plants and flowers.[33] She also wore a new coronation gown, created by Bruce Oldfield and embroidered with wildflowers, the United Kingdom's floral emblems, her cypher, a pair of dogs, and her grandchildren's names.[34][35] St Edward's Crown, which was used to crown the King, was removed from the Tower of London in December 2022 for resizing.[36][21] In February 2023 Queen Mary's Crown, which was used to crown Camilla, was also removed from display to be reset with Cullinan III, IV and V and for four of its eight detachable arches to be removed.[37] The Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother was not used, to avoid a potential diplomatic dispute with India; the crown contains the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is claimed by India.[38] The dress code for peers without a role in the ceremony was originally business suits or parliamentary robes, rather than the coronets, coronation robes, and court dress traditionally worn.[39][20] This was changed in the week before the coronation after protests, with peers allowed to wear coronation robes but not coronets.[40] The general dress code for men was morning dress, a lounge suit or national dress.[41] Art Invitation to the coronation of King Charles III and Queen Camilla The official photographer of the coronation was Hugo Burnand, who had previously been the official photographer for Charles and Camilla's wedding in 2005.[42] Eileen Hogan was selected to paint the coronation ceremony, and Peter Kuhfeld and Paul Benney to paint the coronation portraits of Charles and Camilla respectively.[43] Three alumni of The Royal Drawing School, Fraser Scarfe, Phoebe Stannard and Gideon Summerfield, were picked to document the procession.[44] The United Kingdom coronation emblem Andrew Jamieson was commissioned to create the coronation invitation, which featured the couple's coats of arms, the floral emblems of the United Kingdom, and a Green Man amid other British wildflowers and wildlife.[45][46] The coronation emblem was designed by Jony Ive with his creative collective LoveFrom, and depicts the floral emblems of the United Kingdom in the shape of St Edward's Crown.[47][48] There are versions of the emblem in both English and Welsh.[49] The procession into the abbey was led by the Cross of Wales, a new processional cross commissioned by Charles to mark the centenary of the Church in Wales. It includes relics of the True Cross gifted to the King by Pope Francis.[50] The screen which concealed the King during his anointing was designed by iconographer Aidan Hart and embroidered by the Royal School of Needlework. It includes 56 leaves embroidered with the names of the members of the Commonwealth of Nations.[51][52] The Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, Simon Armitage, released a new poem, An Unexpected Guest, to mark the coronation. The poem follows a woman invited to attend the coronation in Westminster Abbey, and quotes Samuel Pepys' experience at the coronation of Charles II in 1661.[53][54][55] Music Twelve new pieces were commissioned for the service and used alongside older works, including several used at previous coronations.[56][57] Six of the new commissions were performed by the orchestra before the service — those by Judith Weir; Sir Karl Jenkins; a vocal piece by Sarah Class performed by Pretty Yende; Nigel Hess, Roderick Williams, and Shirley J. Thompson; Iain Farrington; and a new march by Patrick Doyle.[58] New compositions by Roxanna Panufnik, Tarik O'Regan, and Andrew Lloyd Webber were part of the service, and Debbie Wiseman composed two related pieces, one of which was performed by the Ascension Choir.[58][59] Existing works by William Byrd, George Frideric Handel, Edward Elgar, Walford Davies, William Walton, Hubert Parry, and Ralph Vaughan Williams were included, as they had been at previous coronations.[59] Six pieces were performed in new arrangements by John Rutter.[60] In tribute to the King's 64-year tenure as Prince of Wales the Kyrie was set in Welsh by Paul Mealor and was sung by Sir Bryn Terfel.[58] A Greek Orthodox chant was included in the service in tribute to the King's father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[56] The director of music for the coronation was Andrew Nethsingha, the organist and master of the choristers at the abbey.[59] Before the service John Eliot Gardiner conducted the Monteverdi Choir and English Baroque Soloists.[56][59] The main choir was a combination of the choirs of Westminster Abbey, the Chapel Royal, the Monteverdi Choir, and girl choristers from Methodist College Belfast and Truro Cathedral.[59][58][61] The orchestra players were drawn from the Philharmonia Orchestra, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Regina Symphony Orchestra, English Chamber Orchestra, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, Royal Opera House Orchestra and Welsh National Opera Orchestra, which are all patronised by Charles.[59][58] The orchestra, situated in the organ loft,[62] was conducted by Antonio Pappano and led by Vasko Vasilev.[58] The State Trumpeters of the Household Cavalry and the Fanfare Trumpeters of the Royal Air Force played the fanfares.[59] Percussionists of the Mounted Band of the Household Cavalry during the procession to Buckingham Palace All eight of the massed bands in the coronation procession played the same music, keeping time with each other with the help of a radio broadcast click track – the first time such technology has been used on such a large-scale ceremonial event; previously bands would march to different pieces of music starting at different times. The tempo set was 108 beats per minute, slowed down from the regulation 116 beats per minute because of the size of the bands.[63] An official coronation album, which includes all music and spoken word from the pre-service and service was recorded and released by Decca Records after the ceremony.[64] List of music played at the coronation service Cost As a state event, the event was paid for by the British government as well as Buckingham Palace through the Sovereign Grant and Privy Purse. The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) stated that it was "unable to give costs, or a breakdown of funding" until after the coronation, but unofficial estimates of £50 million to £250 million have been reported.[69][70][71][72] The cost of the coronation was criticised by the campaign group Republic and the Scottish National Party MP Ronnie Cowan in light of the ongoing cost-of-living crisis in the United Kingdom. In comparison, Elizabeth II's coronation cost £912,000 in 1953, equating to £20.5m in May 2023, while George VI's cost £454,000 in 1937, equating to £24.8m in May 2023. George VI's coronation prior to the coronation of Charles III and Camilla was the most expensive in the last 300 years.[73] The elevated expenses for Charles and Camilla's coronation has been partly attributed to the increased cost for security measures.[74][75] Coronation service The Diamond Jubilee State Coach carrying Charles and Camilla outside Buckingham Palace The events of the coronation day included a procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey, the coronation service itself, a procession back to Buckingham Palace, and an appearance by the King and Queen, with other members of the royal family, on the palace balcony for a flypast by the Royal Air Force.[76] The coronation was conducted by the Church of England and contained several distinct elements, which were structured around a service of Holy Communion.[77] Charles and Camilla first proceeded into the abbey, then Charles was presented to the people and recognised as monarch. After this Charles took an oath stating that he will uphold the law and maintain the Church of England. He then was anointed with holy oil, invested with the coronation regalia, and crowned with St Edward's Crown. After this he was enthroned and received homage from Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, and William, Prince of Wales, and the people were invited to swear allegiance. Camilla then was anointed, crowned, and enthroned. The King and Queen ended the service by taking Holy Communion, and processed out of the abbey.[78] Procession to the abbey On the day of the coronation Charles and Camilla travelled to Westminster Abbey in procession.[79][80] They departed Buckingham Palace at 10:20 BST and went along The Mall, down Whitehall and along Parliament Street, and around the east and south sides of Parliament Square before reaching the Great West Door of Westminster Abbey, a distance of 1.42 miles (2.29 km).[79][81] Charles and Camilla used the Diamond Jubilee State Coach, drawn by six Windsor Greys, and were accompanied by the Sovereign's Escort of the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment.[79][82] Procession into the abbey Flag bearers and leaders from the Commonwealth realms prior to their procession into the abbey The procession into the abbey was led by leaders and representatives from non-Christian religions, including the Baháʼí, Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, Jewish, Shia and Sunni Muslim, Sikh, and Zoroastrian communities.[12][83] They were followed by leaders from different Christian denominations, including the Church of England. After this the flags of the Commonwealth realms were carried by representatives, accompanied by their governors general and prime ministers. The choir followed.[12][83][81] Charles and Camilla arrived shortly before 11:00 and formed their own procession. It was led by four peers[c] carrying heraldic standards displaying the arms of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales,[12][83] followed by the King's champion, Francis Dymoke, carrying the royal standard.[12] The Lord High Constable of England and the Earl Marshal also took part.[12] Charles and Camilla were each attended by four pages of honour, including Prince George of Wales and Camilla's grandsons.[d][84] Camilla was also accompanied by two ladies in attendance: Annabel Elliot, her sister, and the Marchioness of Lansdowne.[85] Unexpectedly the Prince and Princess of Wales and their two younger children arrived at the Abbey after the King, "whose horses went a lot faster than they had in the practice", and joined the procession after their majesties. [86][87] The choir sang Hubert Parry's "I was glad", during which the King's Scholars of Westminster School sang "Vivat Regina Camilla" and "Vivat Rex Carolus" ('Long live Queen Camilla' and 'Long live King Charles').[83][88] After this the coronation regalia was processed to the altar.[12][89] At Charles's request, the sixth-century St Augustine Gospels was also carried in the procession.[90] Bearers and presenters of regalia Recognition The Coronation Chair, which housed the Stone of Scone, was used by Charles during the ceremony. For this coronation, the chair was fitted with a new seat cushion and armrests. The service, conducted by the Archbishop of Canterbury, began with the King and Queen having a silent moment of prayer before seating themselves on their chairs of estate, made for the 1953 coronation.[83][93][94] In a new element of the service, the king was welcomed by one of the Children of the Chapel, to which he replied that he came "not to be served but to serve".[95] Paul Mealor's "Coronation Kyrie" was sung in Welsh by Sir Bryn Terfel. After this the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lady Elish Angiolini, Christopher Finney, and Baroness Amos stood facing east, south, west, and north and in turn asked the congregation to recognise Charles as king; the crowd replied "God save King Charles!" each time.[83][81] Charles was then presented with a new Bible by the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.[83] Oath and accession declaration The Archbishop of Canterbury acknowledged the existence of multiple faiths and beliefs in the United Kingdom.[81] Charles then took the coronation oath, in which he swore to govern each of his countries according to their respective laws and customs, to administer law and justice with mercy, and to uphold Protestantism in the United Kingdom and protect the Church of England. Subsequently, he made the statutory accession declaration.[83] Charles then signed a written form of the oath, before kneeling before the altar and saying a prayer.[83] The service of Holy Communion then continued. The Archbishop of Canterbury delivered the collect, and the epistle and gospel were read by the prime minister, Rishi Sunak, and the bishop of London, Sarah Mullally, respectively.[83] This was followed by a sermon by the Archbishop of Canterbury.[83] Anointing Charles removed his robe of state and was seated on the Coronation Chair.[96][97] He then was anointed with holy oil by the Archbishop of Canterbury, using the ampulla and a medieval spoon, the latter the oldest part of the coronation regalia. The anointing emphasised the spiritual role of the sovereign. It was a private part of the service; as in 1953 it was not televised, and Charles was concealed by a screen. During this the choir sang the anthem Zadok the Priest.[98] Investment and crowning St Edward's Crown, the Orb, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove, and the Sovereign's Ring In the next part of the service, Charles was presented with several items from the coronation regalia. The spurs, armills, Sword of State, and Sword of Offering were given to the King, who touched them with his hand, before they were removed again.[83] During this, Psalm 71 was chanted in Greek by an Orthodox choir in tribute of the King's father, Prince Philip, who was born a prince of Greece.[83] The King was invested with the stole royal, robe royal, and the sovereign's orb, and presented with the sovereign's ring, which he touched but did not wear. He was then invested with the glove, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross, and the Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove.[83][89] Army gun salute at Stirling Castle the moment Charles is crowned The King then was crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury, with the Archbishop and then the congregation chanting, "God save the King!".[83] At the moment of crowning the church bells of the abbey rang, 21-gun salutes were fired at 13 locations around the United Kingdom and on deployed Royal Navy ships, and 62-gun salutes and a six-gun salvo were fired from the Tower of London and Horse Guards Parade.[99] Charles then received a blessing read by the Archbishop of York, the Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain, the Moderator of the Free Churches, the Secretary General of Churches Together in England, the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, representing the Anglican, Greek Orthodox, Nonconformist, ecumenical, and Roman Catholic traditions respectively.[83] Enthronement and homage Charles moved to the throne (originally made for George VI in 1937) and the Archbishop of Canterbury and William, Prince of Wales, offered him their fealty.[94][83] The Archbishop of Canterbury then invited the people of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms to swear allegiance to the King, the first time this has occurred.[83][100] Coronation of the Queen Queen Mary's Crown (here depicted in its original form) was used to crown Queen Camilla The next part of the service concerned Camilla. She was anointed in public view, thought to be the first time this has occurred, and then presented with the Queen Consort's Ring.[83][101] The Queen then was crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury using Queen Mary's Crown.[83] Camilla then was presented with the Queen Consort's Sceptre with Cross and the Queen Consort's Rod with Dove (which, unlike other queens consort, she chose not to carry), before sitting on her own throne (originally made for Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in 1937) beside the King.[83][89][94] This was the first coronation of a consort since that of Charles's grandmother Queen Elizabeth in 1937.[7] Holy Communion The offertory followed, during which gifts of bread and wine were brought before the King and prayed over; the prayer was a translation from the Liber Regalis, which dates from c. 1382 and is one of the oldest sources for the English coronation service.[83] Charles and Camilla then received Holy Communion from the Archbishop of Canterbury and the congregation recited the Lord's Prayer, before a final blessing.[83] End of the service At the end of the service the King changed into the Imperial State Crown.[102] Charles and Camilla then proceeded to the west door of the abbey as the national anthem, "God Save the King", was sung. At the end of the procession the King received a greeting by leaders and representatives from the Jewish, Hindu, Sikh, Muslim, and Buddhist faiths.[83] State procession to Buckingham Palace The King and Queen returning from Westminster Abbey to Buckingham Palace in the Gold State Coach The second procession followed the same route as the first, but in reverse and on a larger scale. The King and Queen were carried in the Gold State Coach, drawn by eight Windsor Grey horses, with other members of the royal family in other vehicles.[79] The armed forces of the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth, and the British Overseas Territories played a significant part. Over 5,000 members of the British Armed Forces and 400 Armed Forces personnel from at least 35 other Commonwealth countries were part of the two processions, and 1,000 lined the route.[99] The Sovereign's Bodyguard, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and Royal Watermen also took part in the procession, and the Royal British Legion formed a Guard of Honour of 100 Standard Bearers in Parliament Square.[79][103] The Princess Royal and the Commander of the Household Cavalry served as the Gold Stick-in-Waiting and Silver Stick-in-Waiting, respectively.[104] The King and Queen and other members of the royal family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace At Buckingham Palace, the King and Queen stood on the rear balcony and received a royal salute and three cheers from the armed forces, who were massed in the palace garden, then joined other members of the royal family on the front balcony to review a flypast by helicopters and the Red Arrows aerobatic team. A six-minute flypast of 68 aircraft was planned, but prevented by rain and low cloud.[105][e] A grandstand was built in front of Buckingham Palace from which to watch the procession and flypast, with 3,800 seats offered to Armed Forces veterans, NHS and social care workers, and representatives of charities with links to the King and Queen.[107] In addition, 354 uniformed cadet forces viewed the procession at Admiralty Arch.[107] Public events and commemorations United Kingdom A Coronation Big Lunch held in London The Coronation Concert, with drones in formation overhead In April 2023, Buckingham Palace revealed a new hashflag emoji depicting St Edward's Crown for use on Twitter.[108] On 2 May, the King and Queen attended a celebratory pre-coronation reception at Westminster Hall.[109] They are due to host coronation garden parties at Buckingham Palace on 3 and 9 May and at the Palace of Holyroodhouse on 4 July.[110][111] On 5 May, Charles, together with the Prince and Princess of Wales, greeted crowds at The Mall during a walkabout.[28] Between 6–8 May people in Britain held "Coronation Big Lunch" street parties.[93] More than 3,000 parties were planned, with English councils having approved the closure of 3,087 roads. Most street parties were scheduled for Sunday, 7 May.[112] Coronation quiche was chosen by Charles and Camilla as the official dish of the Coronation Big Lunch.[113] Pubs also remained open until 01:00 on the coronation weekend.[114] The Coronation Concert was planned for 7 May on Windsor Castle's east lawn.[93][80] In addition to performances by singers, musicians, and stage and screen actors, the show also featured a "Coronation Choir" composed of community choirs and amateur singers.[80][93][115] During the concert, landmarks, areas of natural beauty, and street parties were featured.[116] 5,000 pairs of free tickets were distributed by public ballot, and volunteers from the King and Queen's charities were also invited.[93][117] Several musical performers reportedly turned down the palace's invitation to perform citing scheduling conflicts.[118] Staff from the British Embassy in Washington D.C. volunteer at the Capital Area Food Bank on 8 May as a part of the Big Help Out initiative A public holiday was declared on 8 May to commemorate the coronation.[119] On the same day, the Together Coalition, in partnership with The Scout Association, the Royal Voluntary Service, and various faith groups, organised the Big Help Out initiative to encourage volunteering and community service.[93][80] An estimated 6 million took part in the initiative.[120] The Royal Voluntary Service, of which Camilla is president, also launched the Coronation Champions Awards, which recognised 500 volunteers nominated by the public.[121][122] The National Literacy Trust, of which Camilla is patron, announced the opening of 50 special primary school libraries to mark the coronation.[123] Ecclesiastical initiatives Twenty-eight days prior to the coronation of Charles III and Camilla, the Church of England established a period of prayer for them, and to this end, published a Book of Daily Prayers that included "daily themes, reflections and prayers for use by individuals, churches or groups".[124][125][126] Congregations of the Church of England held special commemorative services throughout the country on 6–7 May 2023.[127] Government initiatives The government of the United Kingdom issued coronation medals to 400,000 individuals, including those involved in supporting the coronation, front line emergency and prison services workers, and members of the British Armed Forces. The medals are made of nickel silver and plated in nickel and feature an effigy of the King and Queen, on a red, white and blue ribbon.[128] A crowned roundel for Green Park tube station The Transport for London announced several initiatives. The roundels used by the London Underground, the Overground, and the Elizabeth line were redesigned to include a crown for the coronation.[129] Voice announcement were also replaced by announcements recorded by the King and Queen on 5 May, and were used on railway station and all Underground stations throughout the coronation weekend and bank holiday on Monday.[130] The London North Eastern Railway also named its daily 11:00 passenger train from London King's Cross to Edinburgh Waverley the Carolean Express, starting on 6 May.[131] Natural England will mark the coronation with the creation of the King's Series of National Nature Reserves, which will see five major national nature reserves named every year for the next five years.[132][133] Memorabilia The Royal Mint released a new collection of coins, including 50p and £5 coin depicting the King wearing the Tudor Crown.[134] Royal Mail issued four stamps to mark the King's coronation, as it did for the coronations of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II. The company will also apply a special postmark from 28 April to 10 May.[135] Signage for a store advertising the sale of coronation memorabilia in Weymouth The Royal Collection Trust released official coronation memorabilia to mark the occasion.[136][137] In February 2023, Buckingham Palace announced it would temporarily relax the "rules governing the commercial use of royal photographs and official insignia" to allow other groups to produce coronation memorabilia.[138] Companies that have produced coronation memorabilia include Emma Bridgewater, Jan Constantine, Merrythought, and Royal Crown Derby.[136][139] Greene King produced a special brew to mark the coronation and auctioned several unopened crates of a special brew created for the cancelled coronation of Edward VIII in 1937, with proceeds from the auction going to The Prince's Trust.[139] Crown Dependencies A public holiday was declared on 8 May in Guernsey, the Isle of Man, and Jersey.[140][141][142] As in the United Kingdom, Big Help Outs will also be organised in all three Crown Dependencies on the day of the holiday.[80][143][144] The states of Guernsey planned events to celebrate the coronation from 5 to 8 May. A vigil was held on 5 May at Forest Methodist Church to reflect on the coronation's spiritual element. On 6 May, bells rang from Town Church, Vale, Forest, and St Pierre du Bois. A live broadcast of the coronation service was played on a large screen at the King George V Sports Ground (KGV), followed by a military parade from Fort George to the Model Yacht Pond. A 21-gun salute was fired at noon from Castle Cornet as part of the national salute. On 7 May, a Coronation Big Lunch was held at Saint Peter Port seafront, along with a service of thanksgiving at the Town Church. That evening the Coronation Concert was planned to be screened live at the KGV playing fields, and buildings including Castle Cornet and Fort Grey were illuminated in red, white, and blue in the evening.[145] In Jersey, on 6 May, Coronation Park hosted a large-screen broadcast of the coronation, musical entertainment, and activities. Licensed establishments were encouraged to open ahead of the ceremony's broadcast, and seventh category licensed establishments could apply for special extensions to stay open until 3 am on 7 May. On 7 May, the Coronation Big Lunch took place in Liberation Square, where a public screening of the coronation concert was also held.[143][146] A crowd in the Isle of Man watches the coronation The Isle of Man government organised three days of festivities from 6 to 8 May. A Coronation Event Fund was established to assist local authorities, community groups, and charities help finance celebrations. On 7 May, a Biosphere Bee Community Picnic took place, and the Legislative Buildings in Douglas was also lit up.[144][147] A collection of 12 Isle of Man stamps featuring photos of Charles and Camilla, portraits of the King, and the royal cypher were also released in April 2023.[148] British Overseas Territories A public holiday was declared in Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, and Gibraltar on 8 May.[119][149] Several events were planned in Bermuda. On 6 May, commemorative tree planting and the opening of a Coronation Garden, designed to reflect Prince Charles's work in support of the environment and sustainable farming, took place at Bermuda Botanical Gardens. On 7 May, a service of thanksgiving was held at the Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity, and on 8 May the Children's Reading Festival took place to recognise Camilla's commitment to literacy, particularly for young people.[150][151] Celebrations in the Falkland Islands included a children's fancy dress party, a live music and karaoke event for young adults, as well as the Big Lunch and the Big Help Out.[152] In Gibraltar, festivities took place on 3 May, including a parade of British Forces Gibraltar and essential services, garden and street parties, concerts, and a 21-gun salute performed by the Royal Gibraltar Regiment.[153][154] A live screening of the event also took place at Grand Casemates Square.[153] Canada Emblem and commemorative items The Canadian coronation emblem A Canadian coronation emblem was created by Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, Fraser Herald of Arms, and registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority. It includes Charles III's royal cypher inside a ring of 13 triangular shapes, the number corresponding to Canada's provinces and territories. The circular arrangement symbolises inclusion and the Indigenous concept of equity and the natural world's cycles. The colour green is a reference to the King's commitment to the natural environment, while the white spaces may be viewed as a sunburst, symbolising innovation and new ideas.[155] Several commemorative items were also produced to mark the coronation, with the Royal Canadian Mint producing several commemorative coins, and the Canadian Heritage Mint producing two commemorative medallions approved by Charles.[156][157] A special edition of Canadian Geographic which focused on Charles was also distributed.[158] Federal initiatives On 6 May, a televised national ceremony to mark the coronation of the king of Canada took place at the Sir John A. Macdonald Building in Ottawa.[159] It featured speeches by Algonquin spiritual leader Albert Dumont and aerospace engineer Farah Alibay, and performances by the Eagle River Singers, Sabrina Benaim, Florence K, Inn Echo, and the Ottawa Regional Youth Choir.[160] During the event, Dominic Laporte created a spray-paint artpiece thematically linked to flowers, as an homage to Charles's support for the natural environment.[161] Several items were unveiled at the ceremony, including a new standard for the monarch, a heraldic crown incorporating distinctly Canadian elements, and a definitive stamp with an image of the King by Canada Post.[160][162] It was also announced that an effigy of Charles would replace that of Elizabeth II on Canadian coinage and the Canadian twenty-dollar note.[156] The ceremony concluded with a 21-gun salute and a performance by the Central Band of the Canadian Armed Forces on Parliament Hill.[160] The interior arch of Princes' Gates illuminated in emerald green to mark the coronation Landmarks across Canada were illuminated emerald green on 6 and 7 May. Tours were offered at Rideau Hall, the official residence of the monarch and governor general of Canada, and the Central Band of the Canadian Armed Forces performed there, while members of the Governor General's Foot Guards performed changing of the guard ceremonies.[160][162][163] Several Royal Canadian Legion branches hosted receptions.[164][165] On 8 May the government announced a donation of $100,000 to the Nature Conservancy of Canada to mark the coronation.[166] The official Canadian portrait of Charles III will be unveiled on 31 May.[167] The Department of Canadian Heritage provided $257,000 to the Royal Canadian Geographical Society to produce educational material for schools on the King's association with Indigenous peoples in Canada and his tours of the country,[160] Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada approved the use of a special call sign in Canada for amateur radio operators to use from 5 May to 2 June.[168] The government will issue coronation medals to 30,000 Canadians who made significant contributions to the country or their local region.[169] Provincial and territorial initiatives Ceremonial shovels placed next to a plaque to mark the ceremonial tree planting at Coronation Park in Toronto Lieutenant governors and territorial commissioners organised events that included exhibitions, military parades, and tree plantings.[162][160] The lieutenant governors of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan hosted events at their respective Government Houses on 6 May.[167][170][171][172][173] Additional events were planned at Government House, Nova Scotia, for 2 May and 22 June, and at Government House, Saskatchewan for 7 and 13 May.[167][173] The latter will feature a debut musical performance by Jeffery Straker, who composed a new song for the coronation.[173] The Lieutenant Governor of Ontario hosted a panel on the coronation with the Empire Club of Canada on 2 May and will open the Lieutenant Governor's Suite at the Ontario Legislative Building to the public as a part of Doors Open Toronto on 27 and 28 May.[174] Government House, British Columbia will host a garden festival and unveil a new garden pathway later in 2023 to mark the coronation.[175] The Lieutenant Governor of Alberta will also hold an event at the University of Alberta Botanic Garden later in 2023 to honour the occasion.[176] A coronation fair hosted by the government of Ontario at Queen's Park Other celebrations organised by provincial governments included events organised at the Saskatchewan Legislative Building on 5 May and the Manitoba Legislative Building on 6 May.[177][178] The government of Ontario hosted a fair at Queen's Park in Toronto and offered free admission to provincially-owned attractions and 39 provincial parks on the date of the coronation.[174][179] A program by the government of Newfoundland and Labrador to distribute seedlings from the Wooddale Provincial Tree Nursery to the public was launched on 6 May to honour Charles's focus on environmentalism.[180] Several coronation concerts were also organised. The Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario initiated a six-part coronation concert series for long-term care homes from April to May.[174] Several places hosted concerts during the coronation weekend, including the Cathedral Church of St James in Toronto, Christ Church Cathedral in Victoria, and Knox-Metropolitan United Church in Regina.[174][175][177] Australia Celebrating Charles III's coronation as king of Australia, buildings and monuments across the country were illuminated in royal purple on 6 and 7 May.[181] A flag notice was also issued, urging the display of the national flag, the Aboriginal flag, and Torres Strait Islander flag throughout the coronation weekend.[182] On 7 May, the Australian Defence Force fired a 21-gun salute from the forecourt of Parliament House, followed by a flypast by the Royal Australian Air Force.[183] The Federal Executive Council also made a $10,000 donation in the King's name to a charity working to conserve the western ground parrot, as an official "coronation gift" to Charles.[184] The ballroom of Government House, Perth during an open house to mark the coronation. A group poses next to a photo portrait of Charles and Camilla in the background. Government Houses in Brisbane, Darwin, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney hosted open houses on 6 and 7 May. Government House in Adelaide will do the same on 21 May,[185][186][187][188][189][190] after a garden party took place there during the coronation weekend, when the same was held at Government House in Sydney.[189][190] Government House, Melbourne will host a reception to mark the occasion later in 2023.[187] The Australian Monarchist League hosted several low-key events and screenings of the coronation on 5 and 6 May, including in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney; but, opted not to organise street parties over concerns that they might be disrupted by republican protesters.[191][192] The Australian Government was criticised by monarchists for not declaring a public holiday, or organising official government events to mark the coronation.[191][192][193] New Zealand The Sky Tower in Auckland illuminated in purple on 6 May 2023 to mark the coronation To celebrate the coronation of Charles III as king of New Zealand, a national event featuring performances was held at the Auckland Domain on 7 May. The New Zealand Defence Force performed a gun salute at Devonport and Point Jerningham in Wellington on the same day.[194][195] Trees That Count and the Department of Conservation initiated a tree planting campaign, with the New Zealand Government providing one million dollars to support the planting of 100,000 trees by local councils during the coronation weekend.[194] The campaign was launched on the grounds of Parliament House, Wellington on 26 April, during a tree planting ceremony with various parliamentarians, including Prime Minister Chris Hipkins and Opposition Leader Christopher Luxon.[196] NZ Post released commemorative coins and stamps on 3 May.[197] An initiative to illuminate landmarks in purple also took place in Auckland, Hawera, and Wellington on 6 May.[194][195] The chefs of Government House shared a Coronation Pie recipe to commemorate the occasion.[198] Several other public services and private groups also organised commemorative events. The New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts is holding a special exhibition to mark the coronation from 21 April to 21 May, featuring works from 68 practising artists and pieces belonging to the Royal New Zealand Navy.[199] Libraries in South Taranaki hosted coronation events from 1 to 6 May. The Wellington Cathedral of St Paul held a coronation festival from 5 to 7 May.[195] Papua New Guinea A ceremony was held at Sir Hubert Murray Stadium in Port Moresby on 6 May to commemorate Charles III's coronation as king of Papua New Guinea. The event was held simultaneously with the coronation ceremony in the United Kingdom.[200] The ceremony included a parade by members of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force, Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary, Papua New Guinea Fire Services, Papua New Guinea Correctional Services and St John Ambulance, a live screening of the coronation, and various speeches and live musical performances, and a fireworks finale. Keynote speeches by acting Governor-General Job Pomat and Prime Minister James Marape were also made at the ceremony.[201][202] Solomon Islands To celebrate Charles III's coronation as king of Solomon Islands, a wake-up call by drumbeaters, pan pipers and the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force band took place in Honiara on 6 May. A commemorative church service was held at the St Barnabas Provincial Cathedral to celebrate the coronation,[203] which also included a cake-cutting ceremony. The service was attended by several ministers of the Crown, including Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare.[204] A public musical performance by One Drop Band was also held at the Unity Square, where a photographic slidehow of historic royal visits to Solomon Islands was also displayed.[203] From 5 to 12 May, the National Art Gallery held an exhibition displaying portraits, historical records, and visits by members of the royal family to Solomon Islands.[203] Antigua and Barbuda Events to mark the coronation of Charles as king of Antigua and Barbuda took place in St. John's. On 7 May, a parade featuring the Antigua and Barbuda Defence Force (ABDF), Girl Guides, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Brigades, The Duke of Edinburgh Award recipients, Seventh Day Adventist Pathfinder, and Cadet Corps marched from the Multipurpose Cultural Centre to Government House.[205] There, a ceremony took place that included a bonfire and performances by the ABDF Band, Salvation Army Timbralists, and SDA Parthfinders Drum Corps. On 8 May, a service of Thanksgiving to mark the occasion took place at the St John's Pentecostal House of Restoration Ministries.[206] Vanuatu The Kastom people who worshipped Prince Philip on the Vanuatuan island of Tanna marked the coronation of his son. Events were organised in the villages of Yakel and Yaohnanen throughout 6 May, including a flag-raising ceremony of the Union Flag, and drinking and dancing. Around 5,000 to 6,000 people gathered to celebrate, with an additional 100 chiefs also attending.[207] Coverage and ratings The BBC suspended the television licence fee for the coronation weekend, so that venues could screen the coronation on 6 May, and the coronation concert the next day, without needing to buy a television licence.[208] The Department for Culture, Media and Sport announced that the event would be shown on big screens across 57 locations in Britain, including in Hyde Park, Green Park and St James's Park.[107] A reporter with the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation speaking with a spectator on the coronation procession route Media outlets in Britain, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand and the United States broadcast the coronation live. Several broadcasters in those countries provided coverage of the occasion throughout the coronation weekend.[209][210][211][212][213] The coronation was viewed by an average television audience of 18.8 million across 11 channels, with a peak television audience of 20.4 million in the United Kingdom, making it the most-watched broadcast of the year so far.[214][215] This was, however, smaller than the television audience for Queen Elizabeth II's funeral the previous year, which averaged at 26.2 million viewers and peaked at 29.2 million.[215] The BBC showed the coronation on BBC One, BBC Two with British Sign Language interpretation and the BBC News Channel, and its peak audience of 15.5 million was the largest of any broadcaster.[214] ITV had an audience of 3.6 million people, with ITV3 carrying British Sign Language interpretation from 10:45am to 1pm, and a further 800,000 watched on Sky News and Sky Showcase.[214] Outside the United Kingdom, the ceremony was watched by over 3 million people in Australia, 7.6 million people in Canada, nearly 9 million people in France, over 4.8 million people in Germany, and 12 million people in the US.[216][217][218][219][220] Reactions Public opinion In April 2023, YouGov conducted multiple surveys related to the coronation in the United Kingdom. A survey on 13 April revealed that 46 per cent of British adults were likely to watch the coronation. Another survey conducted on the same day found that only 33 per cent of the respondents cared about the ceremony.[221] A survey on 18 April found that 51 per cent of Britons believed that the coronation should not be financed by taxpayers.[222] YouGov also conducted a poll in Australia, where it found that 57 per cent of respondents expressed some interest in the coronation, with 14 per cent being very interested in the event. Among the respondents, 43 per cent expressed no interest in the coronation.[223] An Angus Reid Institute poll in Canada found that 59 per cent of respondents paid some attention to the coronation, although only nine per cent of respondents highly anticipated the event. Another 20 per cent of respondents said they would likely watch the coronation, while 29 per cent planned to read about it. Among the respondents, 41 per cent expressed no interest for the coronation.[220][224] Protests The "Abolish the Monarchy" demonstration in Trafalgar Square while the coronation was occurring The British republican group Republic protested against the coronation in London; its chief executive, Graham Smith, called the ceremony a "celebration of hereditary power and privilege".[225] The organisation anticipated an attendance of around 1,500–2,000 in Trafalgar Square, the focus of the London protests, with smaller groups of one to three people spread throughout the procession route.[226][227] According to BBC News, there were hundreds of protesters.[228] Republic encouraged protesters to wear yellow during the protest.[227][229] Pro–Scottish independence and republican marches took place in both Edinburgh and Glasgow on the day of the coronation. The group All Under One Banner marched in Glasgow, and the Radical Independence Campaign and Our Republic in Edinburgh. The latter group also promoted the Declaration of Calton Hill during its march.[230] The Welsh republican advocacy group Cymru Republic staged a protest on 6 May in Cardiff, with a march from the statue of Aneurin Bevan to Bute Park.[231] Around 300 protesters took part.[228] Security arrangements A police surveillance booth on the coronation procession route To control disruptive protests, as well as terror threats and general crime, the police and security services from across the United Kingdom deployed a large number of physical barriers, armed officers, and police drones in London.[232] Over 11,500 police officers were on duty on the day of the coronation, and units of the UK Counter Terrorism Defence Mechanism were also placed on standby.[233] Extensive security planning had been ongoing for several years leading up to the coronation as part of Operation Golden Orb.[232] Republic had been engaged in consultations with the police in the months leading up to the event regarding their demonstration plans. They had been assured by the police until 5 May that there would be no complications with their protest.[234] Arrests The Metropolitan Police stated that 52 people were arrested for offences related to protesting during the coronation and "concerns people were going to disrupt the event, and arrests included to prevent a breach of the peace and conspiracy to cause a public nuisance"; a further 12 arrests were made during the coronation for other offences.[235] Those arrested included individuals from Animal Rising, eight members from Just Stop Oil, and six members from Republic, including their chief executive, Graham Smith.[236][237][238] An Australian bystander who was mistaken for a Just Stop Oil protester was also arrested.[239] The Metropolitan Police said that some arrests were due to plans by protesters to "throw rape alarms" in an attempt to startle horses in the parade, potentially injuring riders and spectators, something about which they had briefed Oliver Dowden, the deputy prime minister, in April 2023.[240][241][242][243] Three members of the women's safety campaign group Night Stars were arrested for distributing rape alarms to women in Westminster, prompting criticism from the Green Party politician Caroline Russell.[244] Human Rights Watch described the arrests as alarming and something "you would expect to see in Moscow not London".[245] On 8 May the Metropolitan Police apologised to six of the arrested protesters, including Smith, after a review found no proof that the protesters in question were going to engage in unlawful behaviour. The Metropolitan Police expressed "regret" over the arrest of Smith and the five other protesters.[246] Smith indicated that he would not be willing to accept the apology, and that he would be considering legal action.[234] The City of Westminster Council have requested an apology from the police for the arrest of the night voluntary workers.[247] The Home Affairs Committee will hold an evidence session on the policing of the coronation and arrest of republican protesters on 17 May.[248] The Metropolitan Police and Lincolnshire Police also submitted a voluntary complaint referral to the Independent Office for Police Conduct concerning the arrest of the Australian bystander on 17 May.[249] The Mayor of London has also demanded answers from the Metropolitan Police over the arrests.[250] Reparatory demands In the lead-up to the coronation, indigenous republican and reparations campaigners from 12 Commonwealth realms signed an open letter to Charles, asking him to formally apologise for the effects of British colonialism and to begin a "process of reparatory justice".[251] The prime ministers of Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, used the occasion to argue that Britain should apologise for the slave trade.[252][253][254] The use of the Cullinan diamonds in the coronation was controversial in South Africa. The ceremony prompted some South Africans to demand their return, following a petition on the same topic after the death of Queen Elizabeth II which attracted 8,000 signatures.[255][256] Republicanism Marlene Malahoo Forte, the minister of legal and constitutional affairs of Jamaica, used the coronation to emphasise the Jamaican government's intention to transition to being a republic as early as 2024, and that the coronation had accelerated the government's plans for a referendum on the subject.[257] A constitutional reform committee on the issue was set up earlier in 2023.[258] The prime ministers of Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, voiced their desires for their respective countries to transition towards a republic. A constitutional commission to look into the issue was formed in November 2022 in Belize. In the lead-up to the coronation, the prime ministers of Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines also pledged to create constitutional commissions to look into the issue.[252][253][254] In the lead-up to the coronation, republicans in Australia criticised Prime Minister Anthony Albanese for attending the coronation,[259] and he faced pressure from republicans to not partake in the oath of allegiance.[260][261] See also iconMonarchy portalflagUnited Kingdom portal Canadian Coronation Contingent Coronation of the British monarch List of British coronations List of people involved in coronations of the British monarch Notes The monarch of the United Kingdom is the supreme governor of the Church of England and is styled the Defender of the Faith. King Harold Godwinson was almost certainly crowned at the newly consecrated Westminster Abbey in January 1066, although this is not specifically confirmed by any contemporary source.[2] If Harold's coronation is included, this was the 41st at the abbey. The Marquess of Anglesey, the Duke of Westminster, the Earl of Caledon and the Earl of Dundee For Charles: Prince George of Wales, Lord Oliver Cholmondeley (son of the Marquess and Marchioness of Cholmondeley), Nicholas Barclay (grandson of Sarah Troughton), and Ralph Tollemache (son of the Hon. Edward Tollemache). For Camilla, her grandsons Gus and Louis Lopes (sons of Laura Lopes) and Frederick Parker Bowles (son of Tom Parker Bowles), and her great-nephew, Arthur Elliot (son of Ben Elliot). Other aircraft, which were removed from the flypast on safety grounds, included Spitfires, a Lancaster and Hurricanes; F-35B Lightning jets; the P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft; transport aircraft from the RAF Air Mobility Force; 18 Eurofighter Typhoons; and the RAF's new Envoy IV CC1[106] References "A history of coronations". www.westminster-abbey.org. Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 2023. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023. Gosling, Lucinda (2013). Royal Coronations. Oxford: Shire. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-74781-220-3. Rhoden-Paul, Andre; Heald, Claire (10 September 2022). "Charles praises Queen's reign as he is formally confirmed as king". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 September 2022. Retrieved 11 September 2022. Ratcliffe, Rebecca; McClure, Tess; Badshash, Nadeem; Taylor, Harry; Zeldin-O'Neill, Sophie (11 September 2022). "Proclamations read out in Commonwealth countries – as it happened". The Guardian. 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"Commonwealth Indigenous leaders demand apology from the king for effects of colonisation". www.theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 9 May 2023. Laughland, Oliver (4 May 2023). "Belize likely to become republic, says PM as he criticises Rishi Sunak". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2023. Olulode, Celestina (8 May 2023). "St Kitts and Nevis is not totally free under King Charles III, says PM". BBC News. Retrieved 8 May 2023. Madi, Mohamed; Olulode, Celestina (9 May 2023). "King Charles III as head of state in St Vincent and the Grenadines 'absurd'". BBC News. Retrieved 8 May 2023. Panchia, Yeshiel (6 May 2023). "'We want our diamond back': The coronation gem spirited from South Africa using a decoy ship". inews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 May 2023. Retrieved 6 May 2023. "South Africans call for UK to return diamonds set in crown jewels". CNN. 5 May 2023. Archived from the original on 6 May 2023. Retrieved 6 May 2023. Choudhry, Sabah (4 May 2023). "Jamaica: King's coronation accelerates plans for Jamaican republic – with referendum 'as early as 2024'". Sky News. Retrieved 8 May 2023. Mauro, Ellen; Sheldon, Mia (4 May 2023). "Jamaica working on split with monarchy as Charles's coronation looms". Retrieved 9 May 2023. "Many people won't be celebrating the coronation. Here's why". SBS News. Archived from the original on 6 May 2023. Retrieved 6 May 2023. Curtis, Katina (3 May 2023). "'Republican' Anthony Albanese swears allegiance until an Australian head of state". thewest.com.au. West Australian Newspapers. Archived from the original on 3 May 2023. Retrieved 6 May 2023. Clarke, Tyrone (3 May 2023). "Prime Minister Anthony Albanese pressed by Piers Morgan on Australian republic dream ahead of King Charles III's coronation". www.skynews.com.au. Australian News Channel Pty. Archived from the original on 3 May 2023. Retrieved 6 May 2023. Bibliography Blair, Claude, ed. (1998). The Crown Jewels: The History of the Coronation Regalia …. The Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-701359-9. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coronation of Charles III and Camilla. Wikinews has related news: Archbishop of Canterbury crowns King Charles III in the UK Official website The Coronation at the Royal Family website The Coronation of King Charles III at the website of the Church of England The Coronation Service – The Royal Family Order of service and liturgy Order of Service for the Coronation of Their Majesties King Charles III and Queen Camilla at the Royal Family website The Authorised Liturgy for the Coronation Rite of His Majesty King Charles III at website of the Church of England All the Bible verses in the Coronation at the website of the British and Foreign Bible Society Government websites Coronation at the website of the Government of the United Kingdom Canadian celebrations of His Majesty King Charles III's Coronation at the website of the Government of Canada The Coronation of His Majesty the King and Her Majesty The Queen Consort at the website of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (Australian Government) Coronation of King 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(1981) King Charles III (2014) Diana (2019/2021) The Windsors: Endgame (2021) Music Buckingham Blues (1983) Prince Charles (1986) Bibliography The Old Man of Lochnagar (1980) A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture (1989) Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World (2010) Climate Change (2023) Eponyms Prince Charles Island Prince Charles stream tree frog ← Elizabeth II vte Queen Camilla Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (2022–present) Family Charles III (husband) Andrew Parker Bowles (former husband) Tom Parker Bowles (son) Laura Lopes (daughter) Bruce Shand (father) Rosalind Cubitt (mother) Annabel Elliot (sister) Mark Shand (brother) Life events Camillagate Second wedding wedding dress 2022 royal tour of Canada 2022 State Opening of Parliament Coronation Medal Concert guest list Coronation quiche Charities Royal Osteoporosis Society National Literacy Trust Brooke Hospital for Animals Emmaus UK St Catherine's School, Bramley JDRF Royal Trinity Hospice Women of the World Festival (WOW) Residences The Laines (Plumpton, East Sussex) Bolehyde Manor (Allington, Wiltshire) Middlewick House (Corsham, Wiltshire) Awards and recognition List of titles and honours The duch*ess of Cornwall Award Rosa 'duch*ess of Cornwall' Popular culture Whatever Love Means (2005 film) Queen Camilla (2006 novel) "How Do You Solve a Problem Like Camilla?" 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By Chris Taylor on February 1, 2023 Share on Facebook (opens in a new window) Share on Twitter (opens in a new window) Share on Flipboard (opens in a new window) The year 2023 in large, fuzzy, colorful numbers. Credit: Diyun Zhu > Science > Environment Congratulations everyone, we made it through the first and most depressing month of 2023. While "Blue Monday" isn't actually a thing(opens in a new tab) — there's no one day in January more depressing than any other — the whole month can feel miserable, a dark slog between the Xmas cards and the Valentines. And in January 2023, the news didn't seem like it was helping. War(opens in a new tab) and mass shootings(opens in a new tab) dominated the headlines. As did storms(opens in a new tab) and floods(opens in a new tab) and cold snaps(opens in a new tab), all made worse and more frequent by the growing specter of climate change. Meanwhile the entire U.S. economy was under threat from Republicans in Congress, who appeared to want to throw the government into default(opens in a new tab). SEE ALSO: Climate disasters defined 2022. These were some of the biggest. But do the headlines give us the full long-term picture? They do not. For that, you have to look at overall trends: the news climate, not the news weather. And more of the trends are more optimistic than you might expect. So here, at the end of the first round of '23, let us warm your worst month with reasons to stay sunny in your soul — along with a cautionary "what we're waiting to see" in each case. Because it's important to remember how bad things can get, and could still get, in order to properly see the best of this moment. 1. There are more electric cars on the road than in 2022. A lot more. Electric cars charging in the snow in China Electric cars charging in a snowstorm in China, January 2023. Credit: CFOTO/Future Publishing via Getty Images It may not look like it just yet — well, maybe it does if you're living in a country like Norway, which just passed a milestone (80 percent of all Norwegian cars sold last year were electric(opens in a new tab)). But we're in the midst of a revolution on our roads. Electric vehicles are going mainstream, and the trend is spiking. There were 7.8 million EVs sold around the world in 2022(opens in a new tab) — a year-on-year growth of 68 percent, blasting through projections, even as auto sales overall fell one percent. We're now in a world where one in 10 new cars sold is electric. In China, where EV sales have doubled in a year, that number is one in every three. This is really, really good news about the country with the largest carbon emissions. The U.S. was lagging, but EV subsidies in the Inflation Reduction Act(opens in a new tab) (IRA) just kicked in on Jan 1. For the first time ever, Americans in the market for a used car can get that sweet $4,000 federal tax credit for EVs. There are a record 43 EV models(opens in a new tab) going on sale in the U.S. by the end of 2023. For 90 percent of Americans, a new study says(opens in a new tab), it's already cheaper to operate an EV than a gas car. The sidelining of combustion engines is happening sooner than we knew. What to watch: EV sales would be growing a lot faster if the U.S. had a public charging infrastructure to match. The IRA offers tax credits for 30 percent of charging station construction costs (in rural and poor communities). But that isn't the same as giving local authorities the desire or understanding necessary to build the damn things. 2. Coal is dying out faster… Having a fleet full of EVs won't help the climate if the electricity in them came from dirty energy. Thankfully, coal makes up less of a share of our electric grids than ever before. The U.S. just started its first year in history with renewable energy generating more power than coal(opens in a new tab). Around the world, coal plants are getting hard to fund(opens in a new tab) and harder to insure(opens in a new tab). What to watch: China's coal extraction, which hit record highs at the end of 2022(opens in a new tab). A new "unified electricity market"(opens in a new tab) means Chinese coal will be forced to compete with Chinese solar on price, a losing proposition for the blackstuff — but that won't kick in until 2025. 3. ...while solar power is exploding. Solar panels in Austin, Texas. Solar panels in Austin, Texas in July 2022. Credit: Jordan Vonderhaar/Bloomberg via Getty Images More than ever, in 2023, humans are sun-worshippers. Solar panel manufacturers churned out almost 295 Gigawatts'(opens in a new tab) worth of solar panels in 2022, a 45 percent increase in capacity in just one year. The 2023 forecast — 319 Gigawatts — may be an underestimate. The projection for 2025(opens in a new tab) says that year will see 940 Gigawatts' worth of panels built, or roughly as much solar power as exists in the entire world right now. Featured Video For You Why aesthetics are the secret weapon we need to popularise solar energy And is it the cheapest energy source out there? You bet. It's now 33 percent cheaper than natural gas in the U.S.(opens in a new tab), and will only get cheaper as the IRA's solar installation incentives kick in this year. It's cheaper in China too, where nearly half of the world's solar panels were installed last year. What to watch: How fast the U.S. can ramp up its solar production industry to compete with China. Incentives are one thing; global supply chain problems another(opens in a new tab). 4. Energy is more renewable than ever — especially in Texas. Wind turbines in Papalote, Texas. Wind turbines in Papalote, Texas in 2021. Credit: Brandon Bell/Getty Images It's not just solar. Wind, hydro, and all other renewable sources are on the march, even in the depths of winter. In the U.S., battery production is going strong and is also about to be supercharged by the IRA. That makes storing power easier, which lets local grids supply us with more clean electricity. According to the U.S. Energy Information Agency, renewables' share across the country will rise to 23 percent in 2023, while natural gas is falling to 37 percent. But those numbers mask a huge surprise: Renewable energy in Texas is growing so fast(opens in a new tab), it's set to beat natural gas this year. Texas, once the poster child for carbon-based fuel, is outpacing California when it comes to renewable installations, mostly in wind power. The largest red state isn't going green for political reasons, but for financial ones; even GOP Governor Greg Abbott has changed his tune on renewables(opens in a new tab) a year after blaming them for winter storm outages(opens in a new tab). It's simply cheaper and easier now to make money exploiting the state's abundant sunshine and fast-moving air than to keep going at the dirty, expensive and dangerous activity that is drilling. What to watch: Renewable project construction is currently trending down(opens in a new tab) thanks to regulatory and supply bottlenecks — temporarily, we hope. 5. The ozone layer is healing, and should soon heal faster. Remember that time humanity almost killed Earth's main layer of protection against UV radiation? A UN report(opens in a new tab) released this month says we can pat ourselves on the back: our efforts to heal the ozone layer by banning dangerous CFC gasses in a 1987 treaty, actually worked. The hole we punched in that layer is on course to completely heal over by midcentury, and progress should be even faster now the U.S. Senate has (finally(opens in a new tab), and in a bipartisan vote!) ratified an amendment to the international treaty tightening curbs on HFCs. That's another nasty atmospheric gas, used in AC units, which also contributes to climate change. What to watch: All that progress could be rolled back if the world needs to geoengineer its way out of climate catastrophe. Seeding the upper atmosphere with sulfate particles(opens in a new tab), a proposal that would reflect sunlight and cool the world, could also rip another hole in our collective UV protection. 6. The bees just had a big win. A hive of bees. Go bees. Credit: Ozkan Bilgin/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images Score one for our hardest-working pollinators. In January, the European Union's highest court banned all exemptions to an EU regulation outlawing three popular pesticides(opens in a new tab), all of which are lethal to honeybees and were implicated in colony collapse disorder(opens in a new tab). That's on top of new regulations that just kicked in, banning all but trace amounts of bee-killing pesticide residue(opens in a new tab) on food or feed imported to Europe – which should have a chilling effect on the pesticides' use in the developing world. What to watch: The U.S. is painfully slow to do anything about the pesticides, although a few states have banned them and California is poised to do the same(opens in a new tab). 7. Inflation is coming down. That vertigo-inducing rise in prices we call inflation? The thing we were worried about for pretty much all of 2022? It hasn't vanished, but it is easing faster than we feared. Prices of consumer goods rose by five percent in December(opens in a new tab), an improvement on November's seven percent inflation. In fact, inflation has been falling for six months in a row, so barring any sudden new shocks to the economy, it's falling as you read this. The Fed expects inflation could drop as low as two percent per month(opens in a new tab) by the end of 2023 … What to watch: …although the rate could bounce back soon after that(opens in a new tab), presenting a whole new set of challenges for the economy. 8. Ukraine is still winning. It's the David vs. Goliath story of our age. A nation that had been invaded by its neighbor, one of the world's most feared military superpowers, beat it back with an indomitable spirit and a steadily increasing amount of technical support. Ukraine's slow-motion success against Russia has been going on for so long, we're likely to miss it, especially in winter when progress is naturally slower. But make no mistake, Ukraine is still winning in 2023 — to the point where Russia is running so low on ammunition(opens in a new tab), it's digging up 40-year-old shells. The U.S., Poland and even once-reluctant Germany have decided to supply Ukraine with tanks(opens in a new tab). The U.S. is set to send long-range missiles(opens in a new tab) that could help Ukraine retake Crimea, an outcome that would have been unthinkable a year ago. SEE ALSO: The people using torrents to talk to Russians about the war in Ukraine What to watch: The increasing number of nuclear threats coming out of the Kremlin(opens in a new tab). It's saber-rattling – such extreme mad-bomber tactics would rebound on Russian territory, destroy Russia's relationships with remaining friends like China, and not even help on the battlefield — but it's still chilling. After all, 70-year-old Vladimir Putin is sending ever more inexperienced men to a pointless meat grinder; he clearly doesn't give a damn if he destroys giant chunks of Russia in pursuit of victory. 9. The world is weaning itself off Russian fuel. Time was when European countries were terrified of poking the Russian bear because of their dependence on cheap Russian natural gas and oil. But Russia's energy exports have fallen by a stunning nine percent(opens in a new tab) in the last month, ever since the EU banned crude oil imports. The U.S. is now poised to become Europe's largest gas supplier. That's what you get for invading sovereign nations. What to watch: Some oil experts suggest Europe will hook itself back up to cheaper Russian gas(opens in a new tab), shunning the pricey American liquid stuff, as soon as the war in Ukraine ends. 10. We're in the first year of the fusion age. A scientist explaining images on a screen Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Director Dr. Kim Budil explains her lab's fusion breakthrough. Credit: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images The breakthrough nuclear fusion experiment announced by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory a month ago has been compared to the Wright Brothers' first flight at Kitty Hawk. That event didn't change the world immediately, but it did lead ineluctably to our present-day reality of commercial flights everywhere. If we start to see nuclear fusion reactors appear in a few decades' time(opens in a new tab), providing virtually limitless clean fuel for the entire human race, we can say it started here. What to watch: Research dollars will make the difference. Does the divided U.S. government have what it takes to agree to more fusion R&D to speed the process along? Will politicians and the public understand the difference between basically safe nuclear fusion(opens in a new tab) with minimal environmental impact, and nuclear fission with its far larger spent fuel problem? 11. The GOP insurgency is weaker than it might have been. Yes, the Republican-led House of Representatives is already forcing a showdown with the Biden administration over raising the debt ceiling, threatening to tank the global economy if the U.S. goes into default. But compared to previous GOP efforts(opens in a new tab) to extract concessions from a threatened debt default, this one is a damp squib. House Speaker Kevin McCarthy, elected to that role only after 15 votes, finds himself incredibly weak. Serial fabulist George Santos is a daily reminder of the majority's lack of ethical standards. McCarthy's caucus is divided. They can't even agree on what they want from the White House in return for a debt ceiling raise, and the administration isn't in a bargaining mood anyway(opens in a new tab). If Kevin McCarthy blinks and loses the fight, we can all enjoy another round of schadenfreude as the House majority tears itself apart again, and maybe even tries to elect a new speaker. What to watch: Maybe the GOP is just unhinged enough to tank the global economy this time? 12. Trump is in trouble… Prosecutors are closing in on the former president from all angles(opens in a new tab), and legal experts expect Trump will be fighting off multiple criminal indictments by the end of 2023(opens in a new tab). So many chickens are coming home to roost, it's already hard to keep track. Witness the judge who this month imposed a $1 million sanction on Trump and his legal team(opens in a new tab) for a frivolous lawsuit against Hillary Clinton back in 2016. The wheels of justice grind slowly, but still they grind — and even Trump's reinstated Facebook account can't hold them back forever. What to watch: Will the Supreme Court, including the three conservative justices Trump himself appointed, make a Bush v Gore-style ruling — basically and conveniently holding that indictments cannot be brought against a former head of the executive branch? 13. …as is Bolsonaro. Moving faster than their American counterparts, Brazilian authorities have already launched an investigation(opens in a new tab) into their coup-fomenting former president. Jair Bolsonaro's defeat in the presidential election last year may have helped to save the Amazon rainforest(opens in a new tab), but it also led to thousands of protestors smashing up government buildings on January 8 – protestors who believed Bolsonaro's long-standing claims that elections could be rigged. What to watch: Just how much was Bolsonaro directing the protests from his self-imposed exile in Florida, and will the U.S. allow him to be extradited to face charges in Brazil? 14. Twitter remains undefeated. Tesla CEO Elon Musk leaves the Phillip Burton Federal Building on January 24, 2023 in San Francisco, California. Elon Musk leaves the Phillip Burton Federal Building on January 24, 2023 in San Francisco, California. Credit: Justin Sullivan/Getty Images Speaking of right-wing leaders beset by legal troubles, Elon Musk is in the midst of an embarrassing trial(opens in a new tab) over his 2018 tweet claiming that he had secured funding to take Tesla private — a possible manipulation of the stock price. Lawsuits against him are piling up(opens in a new tab), including one over his Twitter firings and a couple over Musk's deadbeat approach to paying rent(opens in a new tab). Meanwhile, despite a troubling outage at the end of December, Twitter the service is still standing strong. All of Musk's efforts to bend the site to his will — banning parody accounts, banning journalists, banning links to other social networks — were reversed. His version of Twitter Blue, with paid checkmarks, stalled. Advertisers are fleeing. Tesla stock has had a bit of a rebound in January, but it's still worth just over half what it was when Musk took over Twitter. In 2023, either Musk steps back, sells Twitter to his fellow investors at a loss, or faces the legal and financial consequences of owning a service he never understood. Whichever one it is, the criticism factory of Twitter(opens in a new tab) will be there to mock its fragile narcissist owner at every turn. What to watch: Whether the next owner of Twitter, or Musk's handpicked CEO, will be someone even worse for the service. 15. COVID is rolling back in the U.S. There was a troubling spike in COVID-19 cases at the beginning of the year. With yet more new variants making the rounds, health officials around the country were braced for a rough month. Since Jan. 5, however, every trend line is in the right direction(opens in a new tab): deaths, hospitalizations, cases, and positive tests. It's not the state of equilibrium required for authorities to declare COVID officially endemic(opens in a new tab), rather than a pandemic, but it is a very encouraging sign — and European countries are seeing the same trend. What to watch: There was a global spike in COVID cases(opens in a new tab) later in January, much of it apparently related to China lifting its "zero COVID" policy in December. That seems to be receding too(opens in a new tab), but the world may not be out of the woods yet. 16. Vaccines are quietly saving lives. Despite what you might have heard from the vaccine-denier crowd that Musk allowed back on Twitter, the COVID-19 vaccines are still doing what vaccines always do: save lives. A recent study(opens in a new tab) from the Yale School of Public Health concluded that the U.S. would have suffered 3 million more deaths without them in 2021 and 2022. By that measure, January 2023 would have contained somewhere around 125,000 more deaths in a vaccine-less world. Moreover, there's a growing body of evidence that vaccines may significantly reduce the risk of long COVID(opens in a new tab) — especially if you get another shot after you get sick. What to watch: Only about 14 percent of eligible U.S. adults have had both booster shots, which help tackle the more recent variants of the virus. With COVID apparently fading in the public mind, chances of increasing the uptake on boosters seem grim. 17. The outlook for abortion rights is improving (but the battle is just beginning). A woman shouts slogans during a protest for abortion rights marking the 50th anniversary of the US Supreme Court Roe v. Wade decision on January 22, 2023, in New York City. A protest for abortion rights marked the 50th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court Roe v. Wade decision on January 22, 2023, in New York City. Credit: Leonardo Munoz/VIEWpress The year 2022 saw a great leap forward in access to safe and legal abortions — if you lived in Colombia(opens in a new tab), France(opens in a new tab), Spain(opens in a new tab), Finland(opens in a new tab), or any of the other countries where lawmakers passed pro-choice legislation. In the U.S., of course, it was a year that will live in infamy: A hard-right Supreme Court erased the rights of millions of women by striking down Roe v. Wade. But voters arguably punished the anti-abortion GOP at the midterm elections, and everywhere abortion rights were on the ballot — even in deep-red Kansas(opens in a new tab) — they won. SEE ALSO: How to help abortion funds and reproductive justice networks In January 2023, there were more incremental wins for the pro-choice side. The FDA expanded access to medication abortion(opens in a new tab), the most commonly-used procedure. President Biden directed the government(opens in a new tab) to do everything it could to support that access. New York lawmakers voted to codify abortion rights in the state constitution(opens in a new tab), pending likely voter approval; Virginia is getting started on the same process; New Mexico is looking to get its rights enshrined faster(opens in a new tab). What to watch: Undeterred by the midterms, red states are set to introduce a wave of anti-abortion bills(opens in a new tab) in their coming legislative sessions. Some will attempt to curtail that medication access via local pharmacies. This battle is shaping up to be a long one, and it's just beginning. 18. Tech layoffs aren't telling the whole story. On the surface, the numbers coming out of the tech world are brutal. Salesforce recently announced layoffs covering 10 percent of the company(opens in a new tab). Meta is in the midst of a 13 percent cut. Elon Musk's Twitter is down to a skeleton staff. Google and Amazon are slashing many thousands of jobs too. But don't break out the violins for tech workers yet. There is nothing approaching a recession in the industry. The unemployment rate in Silicon Valley is a mere 2.3 percent(opens in a new tab), lower than the 3.5 percent national average. California overall, and the Bay Area in particular, are still adding jobs. So is the tech sector, according to the latest analysis(opens in a new tab). Large layoffs at giant firms are best seen as a correction to the overly optimistic hiring spree those companies went on(opens in a new tab) during the pandemic, when we needed their services more than ever. There are no signs of a recession in this industry that is increasingly important to the economy as a whole. What to watch: If the tech giants get a bad rep among engineers for poor planning during this pink-slip parade, they may find it harder to attract talent in the future. When there are an array of intriguing startups, who would want the hassle of working for someone as mercurial as Musk — or any of the other tech titans using workers as pawns(opens in a new tab) in their ongoing battle with organized labor? 19. California got the water it needed. You didn't have to live in the Golden State to see the havoc that climate change wrought in January: increased and repeated rounds of storms, leading to flooding and mudslides. Here's the upside, though: Record levels of rainfall have replenished the reservoirs(opens in a new tab) and built up the all-important snowpack in the Sierras(opens in a new tab). Gavin Newson's state will need a lot more water to get out of its years-long statewide megadrought — which, yes, is still ongoing — but the largely unexpected storms have helped make its 2023 outlook more rosy. What to watch: Billions of gallons of water were still lost from the storms as they headed back to the sea without being captured. California is embarking on a series of new water-capturing projects(opens in a new tab), but it's still anyone's guess whether that will help end the megadrought in the longterm. 20. More artifacts are being returned to their rightful countries. A group of German and Nigerian officials holding artifacts German and Nigerian ministers at a ceremony returning the looted art. Credit: Florian Gaertner/Photothek via Getty Images It began last year with the Benin Bronzes, sculptures that had been seized in Nigeria by British soldiers in 1897 and since dispersed into public and private collections around the world. Germany signed a deal to return 1,100 Benin Bronzes(opens in a new tab) and "right a wrong" from colonial history. That started a groundswell. Museums and universities with Benin Bronzes in the UK, plus the Smithsonian, followed suit(opens in a new tab); a Houston museum returned a looted sarcophagus to Egypt(opens in a new tab) – and though the British Museum is dithering about its Benin collection, it is at least negotiating with the Greek government about returning the Elgin Marbles(opens in a new tab). It's early days for what is likely to be a multi-decade process of deciding where looted treasures should go, but the museum world's ethical arrows are starting to point in the right direction. What to watch: The coronation of King Charles III in May, and specifically whether his Queen Consort Camilla will be wearing a crown with the Koh-i-noor diamond(opens in a new tab). If so — or even if she shuns it — that attention could raise the temperature on a heated debate about whether the Koh-i-noor should be returned to India (or Pakistan or Afghanistan, which also claim it.) 21. The air is getting cleaner. In the U.S.(opens in a new tab), in Europe(opens in a new tab), and yes, even in China(opens in a new tab), the trend is clear: you can see further and breathe easier with each year that passes. Fine particulate matter pollution has fallen by 41 percent in the U.S. since 1990, saving 370,000 lives a year – which means around 30,000 people this month are not dropping dead from gunk in their lungs). European clean air laws are now saving 700,000 lives a year (58,000 a month) in the same time frame. Meanwhile, China is soaking up its smog so fast (in part by planting a Belgium-sized amount of forest every year(opens in a new tab)) that it has achieved the same percentage reduction as the U.S. – but just in the last 10 years, not 30. What to watch: Megacities around the world are seeing worsening smog this winter, including Bangkok(opens in a new tab), Delhi(opens in a new tab) and Mumbai(opens in a new tab). How bad will it have to get for their governments to take aggressive action? 22. More of the Earth's non-human inhabitants are safe. Female Fender's blue butterfly among grasslands. In Oregon, the Fender's blue butterfly was downlisted from endangered to threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in January 2023. Credit: Jeff Dillon/USFWS America's Endangered Species Act turns 50(opens in a new tab) in 2023; the Center for Biological Diversity says it has saved 291 species so far(opens in a new tab), and that 80 percent of species on the endangered list are on the road to recovery. Just take a look at the announcements from the first month of the year: a sparrow in San Clemente(opens in a new tab), a rare butterfly in Oregon,(opens in a new tab) and mussels in Virginia(opens in a new tab) are among species to have officially bounced back from the brink, thanks to biologists (and in some cases, an assist from the Pentagon(opens in a new tab)). On top of that, a foal was just born to a critically endangered species of horse(opens in a new tab) thanks in part to cloned DNA. Our species preservation know-how is just getting started. What to watch: Montana, where an out-of-control hunting culture has killed vast numbers of recently delisted wolves – and may be coming for grizzly bears next(opens in a new tab). 23. AI continues to amuse and outrage — but not threaten creativity. Finally, let's look at the future fear du jour, artificial intelligence. January 2023 was prime time for OpenAI's ChatGPT, which has seen a stunning adoption curve — and just passed the 1 million user mark. OpenAI's previous and equally controversial product, DALL-E, synthesizes the work of online artists to create all the visuals a user can request. Both have inspired awe, fear, and outrage over their apparent capabilities to create texts and art like a human. SEE ALSO: The ChatGPT chatbot from OpenAI is amazing, creative, and totally wrong But do those capabilities stand up to scrutiny? Sure, ChatGPT theoretically enables student plagiarism — but it also works as a tool for teachers and professors to help them detect ChatGPT-written homework. Yes, it seems to help professionals write pro forma documents — January saw a flurry of stories about real-estate agents in particular loving it for property listings(opens in a new tab). Try to make it write something creative or thoughtful and truthful, and ChatGPT flounders. Use it for a while and you'll start to get bored by its grade-school story writing skills. You'll spot more and more of ChatGPT's alternative facts creep in; one Princeton professor calls the app a "bullsh*t generator(opens in a new tab)," and he's not far from the mark. What to watch: Two lawsuits targeting AI art apps(opens in a new tab) that are allegedly using copyrighted material in a way that isn't covered by fair use. A landmark court decision on the topic, whichever way it goes, could make the rest of 2023 very interesting indeed. Elizabeth II queen of United Kingdom Alternate titles: Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Last Updated: Sep 19, 2022 Edit History Elizabeth II Elizabeth II See all media Born: April 21, 1926 London England Died: September 8, 2022 (aged 96) Balmoral Castle Scotland House / Dynasty: house of Windsor Notable Family Members: spouse Philip, Duke of Edinburgh father George VI mother Elizabeth daughter Anne, the Princess Royal son Prince Edward, earl of Wessex son Prince Andrew, duke of York son Charles III sister Princess Margaret Summary Read a brief summary of this topic Discover how Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom Discover how Elizabeth II became queen of the United KingdomSee all videos for this article Elizabeth II, in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, officially Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, (born April 21, 1926, London, England—died September 8, 2022, Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from February 6, 1952, to September 8, 2022. In 2015 she surpassed Victoria to become the longest-reigning monarch in British history. Early life Queen Elizabeth, King George VI, Princess Margaret, and Princess Elizabeth Queen Elizabeth, King George VI, Princess Margaret, and Princess Elizabeth Princess Elizabeth Princess Elizabeth Elizabeth was the elder daughter of Prince Albert, duke of York, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. As the child of a younger son of King George V, the young Elizabeth had little prospect of acceding to the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII (afterward duke of Windsor), abdicated in her father’s favour on December 11, 1936, at which time her father became King George VI and she became heir presumptive. The princess’s education was supervised by her mother, who entrusted her daughters to a governess, Marion Crawford; the princess was also grounded in history by C.H.K. Marten, afterward provost of Eton College, and had instruction from visiting teachers in music and languages. During World War II she and her sister, Princess Margaret Rose, perforce spent much of their time safely away from the London blitz and separated from their parents, living mostly at Balmoral Castle in Scotland and at the Royal Lodge, Windsor, and Windsor Castle. Britain's Queen Elizabeth II smiles to the crowd from Buckingham Palace (London, England) balcony at the end of the Platinum Pageant in London on June 5, 2022 as part of Queen Elizabeth II's platinum jubilee celebrations. The curtain comes down on four days of momentous nationwide celebrations to honor Queen Elizabeth II's historic Platinum Jubilee with a day-long pageant lauding the 96 year old monarch's record seven decades on the throne. (British royalty) READ MORE ON THIS TOPIC Elizabeth II: A Life in Pictures Remembering a life of dignity, grace, and duty. Princess Elizabeth and Philip, duke of Edinburgh: wedding Elizabeth II: family Philip, duke of Edinburgh Early in 1947 Princess Elizabeth went with the king and queen to South Africa. After her return there was an announcement of her betrothal to her distant cousin Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten of the Royal Navy, formerly Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark. The marriage took place in Westminster Abbey on November 20, 1947. On the eve of the wedding her father, the king, conferred upon the bridegroom the titles of duke of Edinburgh, earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich. They took residence at Clarence House in London. Their first child, Prince Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George), was born November 14, 1948, at Buckingham Palace. Accession to the throne Elizabeth II: crtion proclamation declaring Elizabeth II queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II: opening of Parliament Elizabeth II: Christmas broadcast In the summer of 1951 the health of King George VI entered into a serious decline, and Princess Elizabeth represented him at the Trooping the Colour and on various other state occasions. On October 7 she and her husband set out on a highly successful tour of Canada and Washington, D.C. After Christmas in England she and the duke set out in January 1952 for a tour of Australia and New Zealand, but en route, at Sagana, Kenya, news reached them of the king’s death on February 6, 1952. Elizabeth, now queen, at once flew back to England. The first three months of her reign, the period of full mourning for her father, were passed in comparative seclusion. But in the summer, after she had moved from Clarence House to Buckingham Palace, she undertook the routine duties of the sovereign and carried out her first state opening of Parliament on November 4, 1952. Her crtion was held at Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953. Elizabeth II: royal tour of New Zealand Beginning in November 1953 the queen and the duke of Edinburgh made a six-month round-the-world tour of the Commonwealth, which included the first visit to Australia and New Zealand by a reigning British monarch. In 1957, after state visits to various European nations, she and the duke visited Canada and the United States. In 1961 she made the first royal British tour of the Indian subcontinent in 50 years, and she was also the first reigning British monarch to visit South America (in 1968) and the Persian Gulf countries (in 1979). During her “Silver Jubilee” in 1977, she presided at a London banquet attended by the leaders of the 36 members of the Commonwealth, traveled all over Britain and Northern Ireland, and toured overseas in the South Pacific and Australia, in Canada, and in the Caribbean. Elizabeth II: family Elizabeth II: corgis On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, her son Prince Charles became heir apparent; he was named prince of Wales on July 26, 1958, and was so invested on July 1, 1969. The queen’s other children were Princess Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), born August 15, 1950, and created princess royal in 1987; Prince Andrew (Andrew Albert Christian Edward), born February 19, 1960, and created duke of York in 1986; and Prince Edward (Edward Anthony Richard Louis), born March 10, 1964, and created earl of Wessex and Viscount Severn in 1999. All these children have the surname “of Windsor,” but in 1960 Elizabeth decided to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants not styled prince or princess and royal highness. Elizabeth’s first grandchild (Princess Anne’s son) was born on November 15, 1977. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now The modern monarchy Elizabeth II: funeral for Princess Diana Queen Elizabeth II: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center The queen seemed increasingly aware of the modern role of the monarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royal family’s domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister’s marriage in 1978. In the 1990s, however, the royal family faced a number of challenges. In 1992, a year that Elizabeth referred to as the royal family’s annus horribilis, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, princess of Wales, separated, as did Prince Andrew and his wife, Sarah, duch*ess of York. Moreover, Anne divorced, and a fire gutted the royal residence of Windsor Castle. In addition, as the country struggled with a recession, resentment over the royals’ lifestyle mounted, and in 1992 Elizabeth, although personally exempt, agreed to pay taxes on her private income. The separation and later divorce (1996) of Charles and the immensely popular Diana further eroded support for the royal family, which was viewed by some as antiquated and unfeeling. The criticism intensified following Diana’s death in 1997, especially after Elizabeth initially refused to allow the national flag to fly at half-staff over Buckingham Palace. In line with her earlier attempts at modernizing the monarchy, the queen subsequently sought to present a less-stuffy and less-traditional image of the monarchy. These attempts were met with mixed success. British royal family Elizabeth II with U.S. Pres. Barack Obama Elizabeth II and Catherine, duch*ess of Cambridge In 2002 Elizabeth celebrated her 50th year on the throne. As part of her “Golden Jubilee,” events were held throughout the Commonwealth, including several days of festivities in London. The celebrations were somewhat diminished by the deaths of Elizabeth’s mother and sister early in the year. Beginning in the latter part of the first decade of the 21st century, the public standing of the royal family rebounded, and even Charles’s 2005 marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles found much support among the British people. In April 2011 Elizabeth led the family in celebrating the wedding of Prince William of Wales—the elder son of Charles and Diana—and Catherine Middleton. The following month she surpassed George III to become the second longest-reigning monarch in British history, behind Victoria. Also in May, Elizabeth made a historic trip to Ireland, becoming both the first British monarch to visit the Irish republic and the first to set foot in Ireland since 1911. In 2012 Elizabeth celebrated her “Diamond Jubilee,” marking 60 years on the throne. On September 9, 2015, she surpassed Victoria’s record reign of 63 years and 216 days. Elizabeth II at the funeral of Philip, duke of Edinburgh Elizabeth II and Prince Philip In August 2017 Prince Philip officially retired from public life, though he periodically appeared at official engagements after that. In the meantime, Elizabeth began to reduce her own official engagements, passing some duties on to Prince Charles and other senior members of the royal family, though the pool of stand-ins shrank when Charles’s younger son, Prince Harry, duke of Sussex, and his wife, Meghan, duch*ess of Sussex, controversially chose to give up their royal roles in March 2020. During this period, public interest in the queen and the royal family grew as a result of the widespread popularity of The Crown, a Netflix television series about the Windsors that debuted in 2016. Having dealt with several physical setbacks in recent years, Philip, who had been Elizabeth’s husband for more than seven decades, died in April 2021. On their 50th wedding anniversary, in 1997, Elizabeth had said of Philip, “He has, quite simply, been my strength and stay all these years.” Because of social-distancing protocols brought about by the cvd-19 pandemic, the queen sat alone in a choir stall in St. George’s Chapel (in Windsor Castle) at Philip’s funeral. The widely disseminated images of her tragic isolation were heartbreaking but emblematic of the dignity and courage that she brought to her reign. Elizabeth II and Liz Truss In June 2022 Britain celebrated Elizabeth’s 70 years on the throne with the “Platinum Jubilee,” a four-day national holiday that included the Trooping the Colour ceremony, a thanksgiving service at St. Paul’s Cathedral, a pop music concert at Buckingham Palace, and a pageant that employed street arts, theatre, music, circus, carnival, and costume to honour the queen’s reign. Health issues limited Elizabeth’s involvement. Concerns about the queen’s health also led to a break in tradition when, in September, she appointed Boris Johnson’s replacement as prime minister, Liz Truss, at Balmoral rather than at Buckingham Palace, where she had formally appointed more than a dozen prime ministers. Just days later, on September 8, Elizabeth’s death, at age 96, shocked Britain and the world. Prince Charles succeeded her on the throne as King Charles III. Ten days of national commemoration of her life and legacy—long planned as “Operation London Bridge”—followed. Notably, the queen lay in state for a day in St. Giles’ Cathedral in Edinburgh and then for three days in Westminster Hall in London, outside of which mourners stood in a line that stretched for miles, in some cases waiting for more than 24 hours to view Elizabeth’s casket. Her sombre funeral ceremony in Westminster Abbey on September 19 was attended by an estimated 100 heads of foreign governments. Following a procession to Wellington Arch, during which Big Ben tolled, the queen’s casket was borne by hearse to her final resting place in St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle. Elizabeth II Elizabeth was known to favour simplicity in court life and was also known to take a serious and informed interest in government business, aside from the traditional and ceremonial duties. Privately, she became a keen horsewoman; she kept racehorses, frequently attended races, and periodically visited the Kentucky stud farms in the United States. Her financial and property holdings made her one of the world’s richest women. Charles III Head of the Commonwealth Photograph of Charles III Charles as Prince of Wales, 2017 King of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms Reign 8 September 2022 – present Predecessor Elizabeth II Heir apparent William, Prince of Wales Born Prince Charles of Edinburgh 14 November 1948 (age 73) Buckingham Palace, London, England Spouses Diana Spencer (m. 1981; div. 1996) Camilla Parker Bowles (m. 2005) Issue Detail William, Prince of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex Names Charles Philip Arthur George[fn 1] House Windsor[1] Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Mother Elizabeth II Religion Protestant[fn 2] Signature Charles's signature in black ink Education Gordonstoun Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge (MA) Military career Allegiance United Kingdom[fn 3] Service/branch Royal Navy Royal Air Force[fn 3] Active service 1971–1976 Rank See list Commands held HMS Bronington Royal family of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms.[fn 4] He acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022 upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. He was the longest-serving heir apparent in British history and, at the age of 73, is the oldest person to ascend the British throne. Charles was born in Buckingham Palace during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. Charles was three when his mother ascended the throne in 1952, making him the heir apparent. He was made Prince of Wales in 1958 and his investiture was held in 1969. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, as was his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Charles later spent six months at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Air Force and Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer, with whom he had two sons, William and Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced after they had each engaged in well-publicised extramarital affairs. In 2005, Charles married his long-time partner, Camilla Parker Bowles. As Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II. He founded the youth charity the Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors the Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president, or a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. He has advocated for the conservation of historic buildings and the importance of architecture in society.[3] A critic of modernist architecture, Charles worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his architectural tastes. He is also an author or co-author of over 20 books. An environmentalist, Charles supported organic farming and action to prevent climate change during his time as the manager of the Duchy of Cornwall estates, earning him awards and recognition from environmental groups.[4] He is also a prominent critic of the adoption of genetically modified food. Charles's support for homeopathy and other alternative medicine has been the subject of criticism. Early life, family and education Christening of Charles (centre, wearing the royal christening gown) in 1948: (from left to right) his grandfather George VI, his mother Princess Elizabeth holding the infant Charles, his father Philip and his grandmother Queen Elizabeth Charles was born at 21:14 (GMT) on 14 November 1948,[5] during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. He was the first child of Princess Elizabeth, duch*ess of Edinburgh (later Queen Elizabeth II), and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[6] His parents would have three additional children, Anne (born 1950), Andrew (born 1960) and Edward (born 1964). On 15 December 1948, at four weeks old, he was christened in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[fn 5][8] In February 1952, upon the death of his grandfather and the accession of his mother as Queen Elizabeth II, Charles became the heir apparent. Under a charter of King Edward III in 1337, and as the monarch's eldest son, he automatically assumed the traditional titles of the Duke of Cornwall and, in the Scottish peerage, the titles Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.[9] On 2 June 1953, Charles attended his mother's crtion at Westminster Abbey.[10] When Charles turned five, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to oversee his education at Buckingham Palace.[11] On 7 November 1956, Charles commenced classes at Hill House School in west London.[12] He was the first heir apparent to attend school rather than be educated by a private tutor.[13] He did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and headmaster, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field.[14] Charles then attended two of his father's former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Hampshire, England,[15] from 1958,[12] followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland,[16] beginning classes there in April 1962.[12] With his parents and sister Anne, October 1957 In Charles's 1994 authorised biography by Jonathan Dimbleby, Elizabeth and Philip were described as physically and emotionally distant parents, and Philip was blamed for his disregard of Charles's sensitive nature and forcing him to attend Gordonstoun, where he was bullied.[17] Though Charles reportedly described Gordonstoun, noted for its especially rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts",[15] he subsequently praised Gordonstoun, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities. It taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." In a 1975 interview, he said he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated".[18] He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse.[19][20] In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education.[21] Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming head boy. He left in 1967 with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively.[19][22] On his early education, Charles later remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have, but that was only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."[18] Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces.[15] In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read archaeology and anthropology for the first part of the Tripos, and then changed to history for the second part.[23][19] During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term.[19] He graduated from the University of Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree on 23 June 1970, the first British heir apparent to earn a university degree.[19][24] As per tradition, on 2 August 1975, his BA was promoted to a Master of Arts (MA Cantab) degree: at Cambridge, Master of Arts is not a postgraduate degree.[19] Prince of Wales Charles and his first wife Diana with Sir James Ramsay, Governor of Queensland (far left), and Ramsay's wife Janet (far right), Brisbane, 1983 Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958,[25] though his investiture was not held until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle.[26] He took his seat in the House of Lords in 1970,[27] and he made his maiden speech in June 1974,[28] the first royal to speak from the floor since the future Edward VII in 1884.[29] He spoke again in 1975.[30] Charles began to take on more public duties, founding the Prince's Trust in 1976,[31] and travelling to the United States in 1981.[32] In the mid-1970s, Charles expressed an interest in serving as Governor-General of Australia, at the suggestion of Australian prime minister Malcolm Fraser, but because of a lack of public enthusiasm nothing came of the proposal.[33] Charles commented: "So, what are you supposed to think when you are prepared to do something to help and you are just told you're not wanted?"[34] Military training and career Charles served in the Royal Air Force and, following in the footsteps of his father, grandfather and two of his great-grandfathers, in the Royal Navy. During his second year at Cambridge, he requested and received Royal Air Force training, learning to fly the Chipmunk aircraft with Cambridge University Air Squadron. On 8 March 1971, he flew himself to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell to train as a jet pilot.[35] He was presented with his RAF wings in August 1971.[36] After the passing-out parade that September, he embarked on a naval career and enrolled in a six-week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth. He then served on the guided-missile destroyer HMS Norfolk (1971–1972) and the frigates HMS Minerva (1972–1973) and HMS Jupiter (1974). In 1974, he qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton, and then joined 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes.[37] He gave up flying after crash-landing a BAe 146 in Islay in 1994, for which the crew was found negligent by a board of inquiry.[38] On 9 February 1976, Charles took command of the coastal minehunter HMS Bronington for his last ten months of active service in the navy.[37] In 1978, he took part in a parachute training course at RAF Brize Norton after being appointed colonel-in-chief of the Parachute Regiment a year earlier.[39] Relationships and marriages Bachelorhood In his youth, Charles was amorously linked to a number of women. His great-uncle Lord Mountbatten advised him: In a case like yours, the man should sow his wild oats and have as many affairs as he can before settling down, but for a wife he should choose a suitable, attractive and sweet-charactered girl before she has met anyone else she might fall for ... It is disturbing for women to have experiences if they have to remain on a pedestal after marriage.[40] Photograph by Allan Warren, 1972 Charles's girlfriends included Georgiana Russell, the daughter of Sir John Russell, who was British ambassador to Spain;[41] Lady Jane Wellesley, the daughter of the 8th Duke of Wellington;[42] Davina Sheffield;[43] Lady Sarah Spencer;[44] and Camilla Shand,[45] who later became his second wife.[46] Early in 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to Amanda Knatchbull, who was Mountbatten's granddaughter.[47] Charles wrote to Amanda's mother—Lady Brabourne, who was also his godmother—expressing interest in her daughter, to which she replied approvingly, though she suggested that a courtship with the not yet 17-year-old girl was premature.[48] Four years later, Mountbatten arranged for Amanda and himself to accompany Charles on his 1980 tour of India. Both fathers, however, objected; Philip feared that Charles would be eclipsed by his famous uncle (who had served as the last British Viceroy and first Governor-General of India), while Lord Brabourne warned that a joint visit would concentrate media attention on the cousins before they could decide on becoming a couple.[49] However, in August 1979, before Charles would depart alone for India, Mountbatten was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army. When Charles returned, he proposed to Amanda, but in addition to her grandfather, she had lost her paternal grandmother and youngest brother Nicholas in the bomb attack and was now reluctant to join the royal family.[49] In June 1980, Charles officially turned down Chevening House, placed at his disposal since 1974, as his future residence. Chevening, a stately home in Kent, was bequeathed, along with an endowment, to the Crown by the last Earl Stanhope, Amanda's childless great-uncle, in the hope that Charles would eventually occupy it.[50] In 1977, a newspaper report mistakenly announced his engagement to Princess Marie-Astrid of Luxembourg.[51] Marriages Marriage to Lady Diana Spencer Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer Charles and Diana visit Uluru in Australia, March 1983 Charles first met Lady Diana Spencer in 1977 while he was visiting her home, Althorp. He was the companion of her elder sister, Sarah, and did not consider Diana romantically until mid-1980. While Charles and Diana were sitting together on a bale of hay at a friend's barbecue in July, she mentioned that he had looked forlorn and in need of care at the funeral of his granduncle Lord Mountbatten. Soon, according to Charles's chosen biographer, Jonathan Dimbleby, "without any apparent surge in feeling, he began to think seriously of her as a potential bride", and she accompanied Charles on visits to Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House.[52] Charles's cousin Norton Knatchbull and his wife told Charles that Diana appeared awestruck by his position and that he did not seem to be in love with her.[53] Meanwhile, the couple's continuing courtship attracted intense attention from the press and paparazzi. When Prince Philip told him that the media speculation would injure Diana's reputation if Charles did not come to a decision about marrying her soon, and realising that she was a suitable royal bride (according to Mountbatten's criteria), Charles construed his father's advice as a warning to proceed without further delay.[54] Charles proposed to Diana in February 1981; she accepted and they married in St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July of that year. Upon his marriage, Charles reduced his voluntary tax contribution from the profits generated by the Duchy of Cornwall from 50% to 25%.[55] The couple lived at Kensington Palace and at Highgrove House, near Tetbury, and had two children: Princes William (b. 1982) and Henry (known as "Harry") (b. 1984). Charles set a precedent by being the first royal father to be present at his children's births.[13] Within five years, the marriage was in trouble due to the couple's incompatibility and near 13-year age difference.[56][57] By November 1986, Charles had fully resumed his affair with Camilla Parker Bowles (née Shand).[58] In a videotape recorded by Peter Settelen in 1992, Diana admitted that by 1986, she had been "deeply in love with someone who worked in this environment."[59][60] It is thought she was referring to Barry Mannakee,[61] who was transferred to the Diplomatic Protection Squad in 1986 after his managers had determined that his relationship with Diana had been inappropriate.[60][62] Diana later commenced a relationship with Major James Hewitt, the family's former riding instructor.[63] Charles and Diana's evident discomfort in each other's company led to them being dubbed "The Glums" by the press.[64] Diana exposed Charles's affair with Camilla in a book by Andrew Morton, Diana, Her True Story. Audio tapes of her own extramarital flirtations also surfaced.[64] Persistent suggestions that Hewitt is Prince Harry's father have been based on a physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry. However, Harry had already been born by the time Diana's affair with Hewitt began.[65] Legal separation and divorce In December 1992, British prime minister John Major announced the couple's legal separation in Parliament. Earlier that year, the British press had published transcripts of a passionate bugged telephone conversation between Charles and Camilla from 1989, which was dubbed Camillagate by the press.[66] Charles sought public understanding in a television film, Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role, with Jonathan Dimbleby that was broadcast on 29 June 1994. In an interview in the film, he confirmed his own extramarital affair with Camilla, saying that he had rekindled their association in 1986 only after his marriage to Diana had "irretrievably broken down".[67][68] This was followed by Diana's own admission of marital troubles in an interview with the BBC current affairs show Panorama, broadcast on 20 November 1995.[69] Referring to Charles's relationship with Camilla, she said: "Well, there were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded." She also expressed doubt about her husband's suitability for kingship.[70] Charles and Diana divorced on 28 August 1996,[71] after being formally advised by the Queen in December 1995 to end the marriage.[72] Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August of the following year; Charles flew to Paris with Diana's sisters to accompany her body back to Britain.[73] Marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles Charles and Camilla in Jamaica, March 2008 The engagement of Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles was announced on 10 February 2005; he presented her with an engagement ring that had belonged to his grandmother.[74] The Queen's consent to the marriage (as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772) was recorded in a Privy Council meeting on 2 March.[75] In Canada, the Department of Justice announced its decision that the Queen's Privy Council for Canada was not required to meet to give its consent to the marriage, as the union would not result in offspring and would have no impact on the succession to the Canadian throne.[76] Charles was the only member of the royal family to have a civil rather than a church wedding in England. Government documents from the 1950s and 1960s, published by the BBC, stated that such a marriage was illegal, though these were dismissed by Charles's spokesman,[77] and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.[78] The marriage was scheduled to take place in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, with a subsequent religious blessing at St George's Chapel. The venue was subsequently changed to Windsor Guildhall, because a civil marriage at Windsor Castle would oblige the venue to be available to anyone who wished to be married there. Four days before the wedding, it was postponed from the originally scheduled date of 8 April until the following day in order to allow Charles and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.[79] Charles's parents did not attend the civil marriage ceremony; the Queen's reluctance to attend possibly arose from her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[80] The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh did attend the service of blessing and later held a reception for the newlyweds at Windsor Castle.[81] The blessing, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, was televised.[82] Official duties See also: List of official overseas trips made by Charles III In 2008, The Daily Telegraph described Charles as the "hardest-working member of the royal family".[83] He carried out 560 official engagements in 2008,[83] 499 in 2010,[84] and over 600 in 2011. During his time as Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of the Queen.[85] He officiated at investitures and attended the funerals of foreign dignitaries.[86] Charles made regular tours of Wales, fulfilling a week of engagements each summer, and attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd.[87] The six trustees of the Royal Collection Trust met three times a year under his chairmanship.[88] In 1970, Charles visited Bermuda to mark the Parliament of Bermuda's 350th anniversary. In his speech to parliament and referring to the actions of Charles I, Charles said "Bearing in mind I am the first Charles to have anything to do with a Parliament for 350 years, I might have turned nasty and dissolved you".[89] Charles also represented the Queen at the independence celebrations in Fiji in 1970,[90] the Bahamas in 1973,[91] Papua New Guinea in 1975,[92] Zimbabwe in 1980,[93] and Brunei in 1984.[94] In 1983, Christopher John Lewis, who had fired a shot with a .22 rifle at the Queen in 1981, attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting New Zealand with his first wife Diana and son William.[95] While Charles was visiting Australia on Australia Day in January 1994, David Kang fired two shots at him from a starting pistol in protest of the treatment of several hundred Cambodian asylum seekers held in detention camps.[96] In 1995, Charles became the first member of the royal family to visit the Republic of Ireland in an official capacity.[97] In 1997, Charles represented the Queen at the Hong Kong handover ceremony.[98] At the ceremony, he read the Queen's message to Hong Kongers, which said: "Britain is part of Hong Kong's history and Hong Kong is part of Britain's history. We are also part of each other's future".[99] In 2000, Charles revived the tradition of the Prince of Wales having an official harpist, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the harp, the national instrument of Wales.[100] His service to the Canadian Armed Forces permits him to be informed of troop activities, and allows him to visit these troops while in Canada or overseas, taking part in ceremonial occasions.[101] For instance, in 2001 he placed a specially commissioned wreath, made from vegetation taken from French battlefields, at the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier,[102] and in 1981 he became the patron of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.[103] At the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Charles unintentionally caused controversy when he shook hands with Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe, who had been seated next to him. Charles's office subsequently released a statement saying: "The Prince of Wales was caught by surprise and not in a position to avoid shaking Mr Mugabe's hand. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe Defence and Aid Fund, which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government."[104] In November 2001, Charles was struck in the face with three red carnations by teenager Alina Lebedeva, whilst he was on an official visit to Latvia.[105] Official opening of the Fourth Assembly at the Senedd in Cardiff, Wales. From left to right: Welsh first minister Carwyn Jones, Prince Charles, his wife Camilla, Queen Elizabeth II, and Senedd Llywydd Rosemary Butler, 7 June 2011 In 2010, Charles represented the Queen at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India.[106] He attends official events in the United Kingdom in support of Commonwealth countries, such as the Christchurch earthquake memorial service at Westminster Abbey in 2011.[107] From 15 to 17 November 2013, he represented the Queen for the first time at a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[108] In 2013, Charles donated an unspecified sum of money to the British Red Cross Syria Crisis appeal and DEC Syria appeal, which is run by 14 British charities to help victims of the Syrian civil war.[109] According to The Guardian, it is believed that after turning 65 years old in 2013, Charles donated his state pension to an unnamed charity that supports elderly people.[110] In March 2014, Charles arranged for five million measles-rubella vaccinations for children in the Philippines on the outbreak of measles in South-East Asia. According to Clarence House, Charles was affected by news of the damage caused by Typhoon Yolanda in 2013. International Health Partners, of which he has been Patron since 2004, sent the vaccines, which are believed to protect five million children below the age of five from measles.[111] Letters sent by Charles to government ministers during 2004 and 2005 – the so-called black spider memos – presented potential embarrassment following a challenge by The Guardian newspaper to release the letters under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. In March 2015, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom decided that Charles's letters must be released.[112] The letters were published by the Cabinet Office on 13 May 2015.[113] Reaction to the memos upon their release was largely supportive of Charles, with little criticism of him.[114] The memos were variously described in the press as "underwhelming"[115] and "harmless"[116] and that their release had "backfired on those who seek to belittle him",[117] with reaction from the public also supportive.[118] In 2015, it was revealed that Charles had access to confidential UK cabinet papers.[119] Charles's ninth visit to New Zealand in 2015 Charles and Camilla made their first joint trip to the Republic of Ireland in May 2015. The trip was called an important step in "promoting peace and reconciliation" by the British Embassy.[120] During the trip, Charles shook hands in Galway with Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin and widely believed to be the leader of the IRA, the militant group that had murdered Charles's relatives in a terror attack. The Galway event was described by the media as a "historic handshake" and a "significant moment for Anglo-Irish relations".[121] In the run up to Charles's visit, two Irish republican dissidents were arrested for planning a bomb attack. Semtex and rockets were found at the Dublin home of suspect Donal Ó Coisdealbha, member of a self-styled Óglaigh na hÉireann organisation, who was later jailed for five and a half years.[122] He was connected to a veteran republican, Seamus McGrane of County Louth, a member of the Real IRA, who was jailed for 11 and a half years.[123] Charles has made frequent visits to Saudi Arabia in order to promote arms exports for companies such as BAE Systems. In 2013,[124] 2014,[125] and 2015,[126] he met with the commander of Saudi Arabia's National Guard Mutaib bin Abdullah. In February 2014, he took part in a traditional sword dance with members of the Saudi royal family at the Janariyah festival in Riyadh.[127] At the same festival, British arms company BAE Systems was honoured by Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz.[128] Charles was criticised by Scottish MP Margaret Ferrier in 2016 over his role in the sale of Typhoon fighter jets to Saudi Arabia.[129] According to Charles's biographer Catherine Mayer, a Time magazine journalist who claims to have interviewed several sources from Charles's inner circle, he "doesn't like being used to market weaponry" in deals with Saudi Arabia and other Arab Gulf states. According to Mayer, Charles has only raised his objections to being used to sell weapons abroad in private.[130] Commonwealth heads of government decided at their 2018 meeting that Charles would be the next Head of the Commonwealth after the Queen.[131] The head is chosen and therefore not hereditary.[132] With Queen Elizabeth II and other world leaders to mark the 75th anniversary of D-Day on 5 June 2019 On 7 March 2019, the Queen hosted a Buckingham Palace event to mark the 50th anniversary of Charles's investiture as the Prince of Wales. Guests at the event included the duch*ess of Cornwall, the Duke and duch*ess of Cambridge, the Duke and duch*ess of Sussex, Prime Minister Theresa May and Welsh first minister Mark Drakeford.[133] The same month, at the request of the British government, Charles and Camilla went on an official tour to Cuba, making them the first British royalty to visit the country. The tour was seen as an effort to form a closer relationship between the UK and Cuba.[134] In January 2020, Charles became the first British patron of the International Rescue Committee, a charity which aims to help refugees and those displaced by war, persecution, or natural disaster.[135] In April 2021 and following a surge in cvd-19 cases in India, Charles issued a statement, announcing the launch of an emergency appeal for India by the British Asian Trust, of which he is the founder. The appeal, called Oxygen for India, helped with buying oxygen concentrators for hospitals in need.[136] On 25 March 2020, it was announced that Charles had contracted cvd-19 during the pandemic. He and his wife subsequently isolated at their Birkhall residence. Camilla was also tested but returned a negative result.[137][138] Clarence House stated that he showed "mild symptoms" but "remains in good health". They further explained, "It is not possible to ascertain from whom the prince caught the virus owing to the high number of engagements he carried out in his public role during recent weeks."[138] Several newspapers were critical that Charles and Camilla were tested promptly at a time when many NHS doctors, nurses and patients had been unable to be tested expeditiously.[139] On 30 March 2020, Clarence House announced that Charles had recovered from the virus, and that, after consulting his doctor, he was no longer isolating.[140] Two days later, he stated in a video that he would continue to practise social distancing.[141] In October 2020, a letter sent by Charles to Australian governor-general John Kerr after the 1975 dismissal from office of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam was released as a part of the collection of palace letters regarding the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis.[142] In the letter, Charles appeared to be supportive of Kerr's decision, writing that what Kerr "did last year was right and the courageous thing to do – and most Australians seemed to endorse your decision when it came to the point," adding that he should not worry about "demonstrations and stupidities" that arose following his decision.[142] Delivering a speech in Bridgetown, after Barbados became a republic, November 2021 In November 2021, Charles attended the ceremonies held to mark Barbados's transition into a parliamentary republic, which removed the Queen as Barbadian head of state.[143] Charles was invited by Prime Minister Mia Mottley as the future head of the Commonwealth,[144] and it was the first time that a member of the royal family attended the transition of a realm to a republic.[145] On 10 February 2022, it was announced that Charles had tested positive for cvd-19 for a second time and was self-isolating.[146] His wife later also confirmed contracting the virus, followed by the Queen herself 10 days after Charles's second diagnosis.[147] Charles and his wife had received doses of a cvd-19 vaccine in February 2021.[148] Delivering the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother, May 2022 In May 2022, Charles attended the State Opening of Parliament and delivered the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother as a counsellor of state for the first time.[149] In June 2022, The Times reported that Charles had privately described the UK Government's Rwanda asylum plan as "appalling" and feared that it would overshadow the June Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Rwanda, where Charles represented the Queen.[150] It was later reported that cabinet ministers had warned Charles to avoid making political comments, as they feared a constitutional crisis could arise if he continued to make such statements once he became king.[151] Reign Pre-accession polling Prior to acceding to the British throne, opinion polls put Charles's popularity with the British people at 42%,[152] with a 2018 BMG Research poll finding that 46% of Britons wanted Charles to abdicate immediately upon accession to the throne, in favour of William.[153] A 2021 opinion poll reported that 60% of the British public had a favourable opinion of him.[154] Accession and crtion plans See also: Proclamation of accession of Charles III and crtion of Charles III and Camilla Charles III walking in Elizabeth II's funeral cortège towards Westminster Hall six days after her death Charles acceded to the British throne on 8 September 2022, following the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II. Charles was the longest-serving British heir apparent, surpassing Edward VII's record on 20 April 2011.[155] When he became monarch at the age of 73, he was the oldest person to do so, the previous record holder being William IV, who was 64 when he became king in 1830.[156] Plans for Charles's crtion have been made for many years, under the code name Operation Golden Orb.[157] Reports before his accession suggested that Charles's crtion would be simpler and smaller in scale than his mother's in 1953,[158] with the ceremony expected to be "shorter, smaller, less expensive and more representative of different faiths and community groups – falling in line with the King's wish to reflect the ethnic diversity of modern Britain".[159] Nonetheless, the crtion will be a Church of England ceremony and will require a crtion oath, the anointment, the delivery of the orb and the enthronement.[160] There had been speculation as to what regnal name Charles would choose upon his succession to the throne. In 2005, it was reported that Charles had suggested he might choose to reign as George VII in honour of his grandfather George VI, and to avoid associations with previous royals named Charles.[161][fn 6] Charles's office said at the time that no decision had yet been made.[162] Following the death of Queen Elizabeth II, Clarence House confirmed that Charles would use the regnal name "Charles III".[163] Charles gave his first speech to the nation on 9 September at 18:00 BST, in which he mourned his late mother and proclaimed his elder son, William, Prince of Wales.[164] On 10 September 2022, Charles was publicly proclaimed king by the Accession Council. The ceremony was televised for the first time.[165][131] Attendees included Prince William, Queen Camilla, British prime minister Liz Truss, and her predecessors John Major, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson.[166] The crtion of Charles III and Camilla is due to take place on 6 May 2023 at Westminster Abbey.[167] Philanthropy and charity Since founding the Prince's Trust in 1976, Charles has established 16 more charitable organisations and now serves as president of all of those.[168][85] Together, these form a loose alliance called the Prince's Charities, which describes itself as "the largest multi-cause charitable enterprise in the United Kingdom, raising over £100 million annually ... [and is] active across a broad range of areas including education and young people, environmental sustainability, the built environment, responsible business and enterprise and international."[168] In 2010, the Prince's Charities Canada was established in a similar fashion to its namesake in the UK.[169] Charles is also patron of over 400 other charities and organisations.[170] He uses his tours of Canada as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education.[171] In Canada, Charles has supported humanitarian projects. Along with his two sons, he took part in ceremonies that marked the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.[171] Charles has also set up the Prince's Charities Australia, which is based in Melbourne, Victoria. The Prince's Charities Australia is to provide a coordinating presence for Charles's Australian and international charitable endeavours.[172] Charles was one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, initiating objections in the international arena,[173] and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation,[170] a charity for Romanian orphans and abandoned children.[174] Personal interests Built environment Charles has openly expressed his views on architecture and urban planning; he fostered the advancement of New Classical Architecture and asserted that he "care[s] deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life."[175] In a speech given for the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) on 30 May 1984, he memorably described a proposed extension to the National Gallery in London as a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved friend" and deplored the "glass stumps and concrete towers" of modern architecture.[176] He asserted that "it is possible, and important in human terms, to respect old buildings, street plans and traditional scales and at the same time not to feel guilty about a preference for facades, ornaments and soft materials,"[176] called for local community involvement in architectural choices, and asked: Why can't we have those curves and arches that express feeling in design? What is wrong with them? Why has everything got to be vertical, straight, unbending, only at right angles – and functional?[176] At the newly opened At-Bristol, 14 June 2000 Charles's book and BBC documentary A Vision of Britain (1987) were also critical of modern architecture, and he has continued to campaign for traditional urbanism, human scale, restoration of historic buildings, and sustainable design,[177] despite criticism in the press. Two of his charities (the Prince's Regeneration Trust and the Prince's Foundation for Building Community, which were later merged into one charity) promote his views, and the village of Poundbury was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall to a master plan by Léon Krier under the guidance of Charles and in line with his philosophy.[175] Charles helped establish a national trust for the built environment in Canada after lamenting, in 1996, the unbridled destruction of many of the country's historic urban cores. He offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage in creating a trust modelled on Britain's National Trust, a plan that was implemented with the passage of the 2007 Canadian federal budget.[178] In 1999, Charles agreed to the use of his title for the Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the Heritage Canada Foundation to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places.[179] While visiting the United States and surveying the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, Charles received the National Building Museum's Vincent Scully Prize in 2005, for his efforts in regard to architecture; he donated $25,000 of the prize money towards restoring storm-damaged communities.[180] From 1997, Charles has visited Romania to view and highlight the destruction of Orthodox monasteries and Transylvanian Saxon villages during the Communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu.[181][182] Charles is patron of the Mihai Eminescu Trust, a Romanian conservation and regeneration organisation,[183] and has purchased a house in Romania.[184] Historian Tom Gallagher wrote in the Romanian newspaper România Liberă in 2006 that Charles had been offered the Romanian throne by monarchists in that country; an offer that was reportedly turned down,[185] but Buckingham Palace denied the reports.[186] Charles also has "a deep understanding of Islamic art and architecture", and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies that combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles.[187] Charles has occasionally intervened in projects that employ architectural styles such as modernism and functionalism.[188][189] In 2009, Charles wrote to the Qatari royal family, the developers of the Chelsea Barracks site, labelling Lord Rogers's design for the site "unsuitable". Subsequently, Rogers was removed from the project and the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment was appointed to propose an alternative.[190] Rogers claimed the Prince had also intervened to block his designs for the Royal Opera House and Paternoster Square, and condemned Charles's actions as "an abuse of power" and "unconstitutional".[190] Lord Foster, Zaha Hadid, Jacques Herzog, Jean Nouvel, Renzo Piano, and Frank Gehry, among others, wrote a letter to The Sunday Times complaining that the Prince's "private comments" and "behind-the-scenes lobbying" subverted the "open and democratic planning process".[191] Piers Gough and other architects condemned Charles's views as "elitist" in a letter encouraging colleagues to boycott a speech given by Charles to RIBA in 2009.[189] CPC Group, the developer of the project, took a case against Qatari Diar to the High Court, which described Charles's intervention as "unwelcome".[192] After the case was settled, the CPC Group apologised to him "for any offence caused by the decision to commence litigation against Qatari Diar and the allegations made by CPC during the course of the proceedings".[192] In 2010, the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment decided to help reconstruct and redesign buildings in Port-au-Prince, Haiti after the capital was destroyed by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[193] The foundation is known for refurbishing historic buildings in Kabul, Afghanistan and Kingston, Jamaica. The project has been called the "biggest challenge yet" for the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment.[194] For his work as patron of New Classical Architecture, in 2012 Charles was awarded the Driehaus Architecture Prize for patronage. The prize, awarded by the University of Notre Dame, is considered the highest architecture award for New Classical Architecture and urban planning.[195] Livery company commitments The Worshipful Company of Carpenters installed Charles as an Honorary Liveryman "in recognition of his interest in London's architecture."[196] Charles is also Permanent Master of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Drapers, an Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Musicians, an Honorary Member of the Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, and a Royal Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners.[197] Natural environment Charles and Camilla meeting Federal Emergency Management Agency officials in Louisiana, as they arrive to tour the damage created by Hurricane Katrina, November 2005 Since the 1970s, Charles has promoted environmental awareness.[198] At the age of 21, he delivered his first speech on environmental issues in his capacity as the chairman of the Welsh Countryside Committee.[199] In order to decrease his carbon footprint, he has used biomass boilers for heating Birkhall, where he has also installed a hydroelectric turbine in the river beside the estate. He has utilised solar panels at Clarence House and Highgrove, and – besides using electric cars on his estates – runs his Aston Martin DB6 on E85.[200] An avid gardener, Charles has also emphasised the importance of talking to plants, stating that "I happily talk to the plants and trees, and listen to them. I think it's absolutely crucial".[201] Upon moving into Highgrove House, Charles developed an interest in organic farming, which culminated in the 1990 launch of his own organic brand, Duchy Originals,[202] which now sells more than 200 different sustainably produced products, from food to garden furniture; the profits (over £6 million by 2010) are donated to the Prince's Charities.[202][203] His organic interest extends beyond farming into landscaped spaces and Highgrove House practices organic lawn management to increase biodiversity.[204] Documenting work on his estate, Charles co-authored (with Charles Clover, environment editor of The Daily Telegraph) Highgrove: An Experiment in Organic Gardening and Farming, published in 1993, and offers his patronage to Garden Organic. Along similar lines, Charles became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade. Although the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic in England prevented Charles from visiting organic farms in Saskatchewan, he met the farmers at Assiniboia town hall.[205] In 2004, he founded the Mutton Renaissance Campaign, which aims to support British sheep farmers and make mutton more attractive to Britons.[206] His organic farming has attracted media criticism: According to The Independent in October 2006, "the story of Duchy Originals has involved compromises and ethical blips, wedded to a determined merchandising programme."[207] A prominent critic of the practice,[208] Charles III has also spoken against the use of GM crops and in a letter to British prime minister Tony Blair in 1998, Charles criticised the development of genetically modified foods.[209] He repeated the same sentiments in 2008, arguing that having "one form of clever genetic engineering after another then … will be guaranteed to cause the biggest disaster environmentally of all time."[210] In 2007, Charles received the tenth annual Global Environmental Citizen Award from the Harvard Medical School's Center for Health and the Global Environment, the director of which, Eric Chivian, stated: "For decades the Prince of Wales has been a champion of the natural world ... He has been a world leader in efforts to improve energy efficiency and in reducing the discharge of toxic substances on land, and into the air and the oceans".[211] Charles's travels by private jet drew criticism from Plane Stupid's Joss Garman.[212] In 2007, Charles launched the Prince's May Day Network, which encourages businesses to take action on climate change. Speaking to the European Parliament on 14 February 2008, he called for European Union leadership in the war against climate change. During the standing ovation that followed, Nigel Farage, the leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), remained seated and went on to describe Charles's advisers as "naive and foolish at best."[213] In a speech to the Low Carbon Prosperity Summit in a European Parliament chamber on 9 February 2011, Charles said that climate change sceptics are playing "a reckless game of roulette" with the planet's future and are having a "corrosive effect" on public opinion. He also articulated the need to protect fisheries and the Amazon rainforest, and to make low-carbon emissions affordable and competitive.[214] In 2011, Charles received the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Medal for his engagement with the environment, such as the conservation of rainforests.[215] On 27 August 2012, Charles addressed the International Union for Conservation of Nature – World Conservation Congress, supporting the view that grazing animals are needed to keep soils and grassland productive: I have been particularly fascinated, for example, by the work of a remarkable man called Allan Savory, in Zimbabwe and other semi arid areas, who has argued for years against the prevailing expert view that is the simple numbers of cattle that drive overgrazing and cause fertile land to become desert. On the contrary, as he has since shown so graphically, the land needs the presence of feeding animals and their droppings for the cycle to be complete so that soils and grassland areas stay productive. Such that, if you take grazers off the land and lock them away in vast feedlots, the land dies.[216] In February 2014, Charles visited the Somerset levels to meet residents affected by winter flooding. During his visit, Charles remarked that "There's nothing like a jolly good disaster to get people to start doing something. The tragedy is that nothing happened for so long." He pledged a £50,000 donation, provided by the Prince's Countryside Fund, to help families and businesses.[217] In December 2015, Charles delivered a speech at the opening ceremony for COP21, making a plea to industries to put an end to practices that cause deforestation.[218] In August 2019, it was announced that Charles had collaborated with British fashion designers Vin and Omi to produce a line of clothing made out of nettles found in his Highgrove estate. Nettles are a type of plant which are usually "perceived to have no value". The Highgrove plant waste was also used to create the jewellery worn with the dresses.[219] In September 2020, Charles launched RE:TV, an online platform featuring short films and articles on issues such as climate change and sustainability. He serves as the platform's editor-in-chief.[220] The platform later partnered with Amazon Prime Video and WaterBear, another streaming platform dedicated to environmental issues.[221] In the same month, he stated in a speech that a military-style response similar to the Marshall Plan was required to combat climate change.[222] In January 2020, Charles launched the Sustainable Markets Initiative at the World Economic Forum's annual meeting in Davos, a project which encourages putting sustainability at the centre of all activities.[223] In May 2020, his Sustainable Markets Initiative and the World Economic Forum launched the Great Reset project, a five-point plan concerned with enhancing sustainable economic growth following the global recession caused by the cvd-19 pandemic.[224] In January 2021, Charles launched Terra Carta ("Earth Charter"), a sustainable finance charter that would ask its signatories to follow a set of rules towards becoming more sustainable and make investments in projects and causes that help with preserving the environment.[225] In July 2021, Charles and Jony Ive announced the Terra Carta Design Lab, a competition conceived by the Royal College of Art to find solutions to climate change and environmental issues, winners of which would be supported financially and introduced to the industry leads of the Sustainable Markets Initiative.[226] In September 2021, he launched the Food for the Future initiative, a programme with contributions from Jimmy Doherty and Jamie Oliver which aims to educate secondary school children about the food system and eliminating food waste.[227] In his role as patron of the National Hedgelaying Society, Charles has hosted receptions for the organisation's rural competition at his Highgrove estate to assist with preserving hedgerows planted in the UK.[228] In June 2021, Charles attended a reception hosted by the Queen during the 47th G7 summit, and a meeting between G7 leaders and sustainable industry CEOs to discuss governmental and corporate solutions to environmental problems.[229] In October 2021, he delivered a speech at the 2021 G20 Rome summit, describing COP26 as "the last chance saloon" for preventing climate change and asking for actions that would lead to a green-led sustainable economy.[230] In his speech at the opening ceremony for COP26, he repeated his sentiments from the previous year, stating that "a vast military-style campaign" was needed "to marshal the strength of the global private sector" for tackling climate change.[231] In 2021, Charles spoke to the BBC about the environment and said two days a week he eats no meat nor fish and one day a week he eats no dairy products.[232] In 2022, it was reported that he eats a breakfast of fruit salad, seeds and tea. He does not eat lunch, but takes a break for tea at 5 p.m. and eats dinner at 8:30 p.m. and then returns to work until midnight or after.[233] Charles, who is patron of the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, launched the Climate Action Scholarships for students from small island nations in partnership with University of Cambridge, University of Toronto, University of Melbourne, McMaster University and University of Montreal in March 2022.[234] In September 2022, Charles hosted the Global Allergy Symposium at Dumfries House with the Natasha Allergy Research Foundation and 16 allergy experts from around the world to discuss factors behind new emerging allergies, including biodiversity loss and climate change.[235] In October 2022, it was reported that British prime minister Liz Truss had advised the King against attending COP27, to which he had agreed.[236] Alternative medicine See also: The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health and The College of Medicine Charles and Camilla with NIH director Elias Zerhouni (second from left) and Surgeon-General Richard Carmona (right), November 2005 Charles has controversially championed alternative medicine.[237] He first expressed his interest in alternative medicine publicly in December 1982 in an address to the British Medical Association (BMA).[238] This speech was seen as 'combative' and 'critical' of modern medicine, and was met with anger by some medical professionals.[239] The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health (FIH) attracted opposition from the scientific and medical community over its campaign encouraging general practitioners to offer herbal and other alternative treatments to National Health Service patients.[240][241] In June 2004, during a speech to healthcare professionals at a conference, he advocated using Gerson therapy treatments, such as coffee enemas, to treat cancer patients and said he knew of a terminally ill cancer patient who was cured with them.[242][241][243] He said: "I know of one patient who turned to Gerson Therapy having been told that she was suffering from terminal cancer, and would not survive another course of chemotherapy. Happily, seven years later she is alive and well."[242] These comments drew criticism from medical professionals such as Michael Baum.[244] In May 2006, Charles made a speech at the World Health Assembly in Geneva, urging the integration of conventional and alternative medicine and arguing for homeopathy.[245] In April 2008, The Times published a letter from Edzard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, which asked the FIH to recall two guides promoting alternative medicine, saying "the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective, and many are downright dangerous." A speaker for the FIH countered the criticism by stating: "We entirely reject the accusation that our online publication Complementary Healthcare: A Guide contains any misleading or inaccurate claims about the benefits of complementary therapies. On the contrary, it treats people as adults and takes a responsible approach by encouraging people to look at reliable sources of information ... so that they can make informed decisions. The foundation does not promote complementary therapies."[246] That year, Ernst published a book with Simon Singh, mockingly dedicated to "HRH the Prince of Wales", called Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. The last chapter is highly critical of Charles's advocacy of complementary and alternative treatments.[247] Charles's Duchy Originals produced a variety of complementary medicinal products including a "Detox Tincture" that Edzard Ernst denounced as "financially exploiting the vulnerable" and "outright quackery".[248] In 2009, the Advertising Standards Authority criticised an email that Duchy Originals had sent out to advertise its Echina-Relief, Hyperi-Lift and Detox Tinctures products saying that it was misleading.[248] Charles personally wrote at least seven letters[249] to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) shortly before they relaxed the rules governing labelling of such herbal products, a move that has been widely condemned by scientists and medical bodies.[250] In October 2009, it was reported that Charles had personally lobbied the Health Secretary, Andy Burnham, regarding greater provision of alternative treatments in the NHS.[248] In April 2010, following accounting irregularities, a former official at the FIH and his wife were arrested for fraud believed to total £300,000.[251] Four days later, the FIH announced its closure, claiming that it "has achieved its key objective of promoting the use of integrated health."[252] The charity's finance director, accountant George Gray, was convicted of theft totalling £253,000 and sentenced to three years in prison.[253] The FIH was re-branded and re-launched later in 2010 as The College of Medicine,[253][254] of which Charles became a patron in 2019.[255] In 2016, Charles said in a speech that he used homeopathic veterinary medicines to reduce antibiotic use at his farm.[256] He drew criticism after becoming a patron of the Faculty of Homeopathy on 27 June 2019.[257] Sports From his youth until 1992, Charles was an avid player of competitive polo. He continued to play informally, including for charity, until 2005.[258] He was occasionally injured after falling off horses,[259] and underwent two operations in 1990 to fix fractures in his right arm.[260] Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting until the sport was banned in the United Kingdom in 2005. By the late 1990s, opposition to the activity was growing when Charles's participation was viewed as a "political statement" by those who were opposed to it. The League Against Cruel Sports launched an attack against Charles after he took his sons on the Beaufort Hunt in 1999. At that time, the government was trying to ban hunting with hounds.[261] In 2001, he broke a small bone in his left shoulder while hunting in Derbyshire.[262] Charles has been a keen salmon angler since youth and supports Orri Vigfússon's efforts to protect the North Atlantic salmon. He frequently fishes the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, while he claims his most special angling memories are from his time in Vopnafjörður, Iceland.[263] Charles is a supporter of Burnley Football Club.[264] Aside from hunting, Charles has also participated in target rifle competitions, representing the House of Lords in the Vizianagram Match (Lords vs. Commons) at Bisley.[265] He became President of the British National Rifle Association in 1977.[266] Visual, performing and contemporary arts Charles is president or patron of more than 20 performing arts organisations, which include the Royal College of Music, the Royal Opera, the English Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, Welsh National Opera, and the Purcell School. In 2000, he revived the tradition of appointing harpists to the Royal Court, by appointing an Official Harpist to the Prince of Wales. As an undergraduate at Cambridge, he played the cello and has sung with the Bach Choir twice.[267] He was a member of Dryden Society, Trinity College's drama group, and appeared in sketches and revues.[268] Charles founded The Prince's Foundation for Children and The Arts in 2002, to help more children experience the arts first-hand. He is president of the Royal Shakespeare Company and attends performances in Stratford-Upon-Avon, supports fundraising events and attends the company's annual general meeting.[267] He enjoys comedy,[269] and is interested in illusionism, becoming a member of The Magic Circle after passing his audition in 1975 by performing the "cups and balls" effect.[270] Charles has also been patron of the British Film Institute since 1978.[271] Charles is a keen and accomplished watercolourist who has exhibited and sold a number of his works to raise money for his charities and also published books on the subject. To mark the 25th anniversary of his investiture as the Prince of Wales in 1994, the Royal Mail issued a series of postage stamps which featured his paintings.[272] For his 50th birthday, 50 of his watercolours were exhibited at Hampton Court Palace.[272] In 2001, 20 lithographs of his watercolour paintings illustrating his country estates were exhibited at the Florence International Biennale of Contemporary Art.[273] In 2016, it was estimated that he had sold lithographs of his watercolours for a total of £2 million from a shop at his Highgrove House residence.[272] For his 70th birthday in 2018, his works were exhibited at the National Gallery of Australia.[272] In 2022, 79 of his paintings were put on display in London.[272] He is Honorary President of the Royal Academy of Arts Development Trust.[274] Charles was awarded the 2011 Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award by the Montblanc Cultural Foundation for his support and commitment to the arts, particularly in regard to young people.[275] On 23 April 2016, Charles appeared in a comedy sketch for the Royal Shakespeare Company's Shakespeare Live! at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare's death in 1616. The event was televised live by the BBC. Charles made a surprise entrance to settle the disputed delivery of Hamlet's celebrated line, "To be or not to be, that is the question".[276] In January 2022, Charles commissioned seven artists to paint portraits of seven Holocaust survivors. The paintings were exhibited at the Queen's Gallery in Buckingham Palace and at the Palace of Holyroodhouse and were featured in a BBC Two documentary titled Survivors: Portraits of the Holocaust.[277] Publications Main article: Bibliography of Charles III Charles is the author of several books that reflect his own interests. He has also contributed a foreword or preface to books by other writers and has also written, presented and has been featured in documentary films.[278] Religion and philosophy With Czech Orthodox priest Jaroslav Šuvarský in 2010 The King is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[279] He is also a member of the Church of Scotland, and he swore an oath to uphold that church immediately after he was proclaimed king in September 2022.[2] Charles was confirmed at age 16 by Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey at Easter 1965, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[280] He attends services at various Anglican churches close to Highgrove,[281] and attends the Church of Scotland's Crathie Kirk with the rest of the royal family when staying at Balmoral Castle. In 2000, he was appointed as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Charles has visited (amid some secrecy) Eastern Orthodox monasteries several times on Mount Athos[282] as well as in Romania[181] and Serbia.[283] Charles is also patron of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford, and in the 2000s, he inaugurated the Markfield Institute of Higher Education, which is dedicated to Islamic studies in a plural multicultural context.[187][284] Laurens van der Post became a friend of Charles in 1977; he was dubbed his "spiritual guru" and was godfather to Charles's son, Prince William.[285] From van der Post, Charles developed a focus on philosophy and interest in other religions.[286] Charles expressed his philosophical views in his 2010 book, Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World,[287] which won a Nautilus Book Award.[288] In November 2016, he attended the consecration of St Thomas Cathedral, Acton, to be Britain's first Syriac Orthodox cathedral.[289] In October 2019, he attended the canonisation of Cardinal Newman.[290] Charles visited Eastern Church leaders in Jerusalem in January 2020 culminating in an ecumenical service in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, after which he walked through that city accompanied by Christian and Muslim dignitaries.[291] In his 1994 documentary with Jonathan Dimbleby, Charles said that he wished to be seen as the "Defender of Faith" as king, rather than the monarch's traditional title of "Defender of the Faith", in order to respect other people's religious traditions.[292] This attracted controversy at the time, as well as speculation that the crtion oath may be altered.[293] He stated in 2015 that he would retain the title of "Defender of the Faith", whilst "ensuring that other people's faiths can also be practised", which he sees as a duty of the Church of England.[294] Media image Since his birth, Charles has received close media attention, which increased as he matured. It has been an ambivalent relationship, largely impacted by his marriages to Diana and Camilla and their aftermath, but also centred on his future conduct as king, such as the 2014 play King Charles III.[295] Known for expressing his opinions, when asked during an interview to mark his 70th birthday whether this would continue in the same way once he is king, he responded "No. It won't. I'm not that stupid. I do realise that it is a separate exercise being sovereign. So, of course, you know, I understand entirely how that should operate".[296] Charles and Diana with US president Ronald Reagan (at right) and First Lady Nancy Reagan (second from right) in November 1985 Described as the "world's most eligible bachelor" in the late 1970s,[297] Charles was subsequently overshadowed by Diana.[298] After her death, the media regularly breached Charles's privacy and printed exposés. In 2003, Diana's butler Paul Burrell published a note that he claimed had been written by Diana in 1995, in which there were allegations that Charles was "planning 'an accident' in [Diana's] car, brake failure and serious head injury" so that he could marry again.[299] When questioned by the Metropolitan Police inquiry team as a part of Operation Paget, Charles told the authorities that he did not know about his former wife's note from 1995 and could not understand why she had these feelings.[300] Other people who were formerly connected with Charles have betrayed his confidence. In 1995, he obtained an injunction that prevented a former housekeeper's memoirs from being published in the United Kingdom, although they eventually sold 100,000 copies in the United States.[301] Later, an ex-member of his household handed the press an internal memo in which Charles commented on ambition and opportunity, and which was widely interpreted as blaming meritocracy for creating a combative atmosphere in society. Charles responded: "In my view, it is just as great an achievement to be a plumber or a bricklayer as it is to be a lawyer or a doctor".[302] Charity donations In 2021 and 2022, two of Charles's charities, the Prince's Foundation and the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund, came under scrutiny for accepting donations that were deemed inappropriate by the media. In August 2021, it was announced that the Prince's Foundation was launching an investigation into the reports that middlemen took cuts for setting up dinners involving wealthy donors and Charles, at that time Prince of Wales, with prices as high as £100,000 and the fixers taking up to 25% of the fees.[303] After temporarily stepping down, Charles's aide Michael Fawcett resigned from his role as chief executive of the Prince's Foundation in November 2021,[304] following reports that he had fixed a CBE for Saudi businessman Mahfouz Marei Mubarak bin Mahfouz who donated more than £1.5 million to royal charities contrary to section 1 of the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925.[305] Charles gave Mahfouz his Honorary CBE at a private ceremony in the Blue Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace in November 2016,[306] though the event was not published in the Court Circular.[307] Clarence House responded that Charles had "no knowledge of the alleged offer of honours or British citizenship on the basis of donation to his charities and fully supports the investigation".[308] The auditing firm EY, which carried out the investigation, published a summary report in December 2021, stating that Fawcett had co-ordinated with "fixers", but there was "no evidence that trustees at the time were aware of these communications".[309] The Charity Commission launched its own investigation into allegations that the donations meant for the Prince's Foundation had been instead sent to the Mahfouz Foundation.[310] In 2021, the foundation was also criticised for accepting a £200,000 donation from Russian convict,[311] Dmitry Leus,[312] whom Charles thanked in a letter,[313] and a £500,000 donation from Taiwanese fugitive Bruno Wang.[314] The donations by the Russian convict led to an investigation by the Scottish Charity Regulator.[315] In February 2022 the Metropolitan Police launched an investigation into the cash-for-honours allegations linked to the foundation.[316] In June 2022, The Times reported that between 2011 and 2015 Charles accepted €3 million in cash from the prime minister of Qatar, Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani.[317] The funds were said to be in the form of €500 notes, handed over in person in three tranches, in a suitcase, holdall and carrier bags.[317][318] Charles's meetings with Al Thani did not appear in the Court Circular.[317] Coutts collected the cash and each payment was deposited into the accounts of the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund.[318] There is no evidence that the payments were illegal or that it was not intended for the money to go to the charity.[318] The Charity Commission announced they would review the information,[319] and in July 2022, they announced that they would not be launching an investigation into the donations as the information submitted had provided "sufficient assurance" that due diligence had taken place.[320] In the same month, The Times reported that on the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund receiving a donation of £1 million from Bakr bin Laden and Shafiq bin Laden, both half-brothers of Osama bin Laden, during a private meeting in 2013.[321][322] Charles and Bakr bin Laden had known each other since 2000.[322] The Charity Commission described the decision to accept donations as a "matter for trustees" and added that based on the available information no investigation was required.[323] In June 2022, a senior palace aide said that cash donations would no longer be accepted.[324] Reaction to press treatment In 1994, German tabloid Bild published nude photos of Charles that were taken while he was vacationing in Le Barroux.[325] They were reportedly put up for sale for £30,000.[325] Buckingham Palace reacted by stating that it was "unjustifiable for anybody to suffer this sort of intrusion".[326] In 2002, Charles, "so often a target of the press, got his chance to return fire" when addressing "scores of editors, publishers and other media executives" gathered at St Bride's Fleet Street to celebrate 300 years of journalism.[327][328] Defending public servants from "the corrosive drip of constant criticism", he noted that the press had been "awkward, cantankerous, cynical, bloody-minded, at times intrusive, at times inaccurate and at times deeply unfair and harmful to individuals and to institutions."[328] But, he concluded, regarding his own relations with the press, "from time to time we are probably both a bit hard on each other, exaggerating the downsides and ignoring the good points in each."[328] Charles's anguish was recorded in his private comments to Prince William, caught on a microphone during a press photo-call in 2005 and published in the national press. After a question from the BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, Charles muttered: "These bloody people. I can't bear that man. I mean, he's so awful, he really is."[329] In 2006, Charles filed a court case against the Mail on Sunday, after excerpts of his personal journals were published, revealing his opinions on matters such as the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997, in which Charles described the Chinese government officials as "appalling old waxworks".[330][85] Mark Bolland, his ex-private secretary, declared in a statement to the High Court that Charles "would readily embrace the political aspects of any contentious issue he was interested in ... He carried it out in a very considered, thoughtful and researched way. He often referred to himself as a 'dissident' working against the prevailing political consensus."[330] Jonathan Dimbleby reported that Charles "has accumulated a number of certainties about the state of the world and does not relish contradiction."[331] In 2015, The Independent noted that Charles would only speak to broadcasters "on the condition they have signed a 15-page contract, demanding that Clarence House attends both the 'rough cut' and 'fine cut' edits of films and, if it is unhappy with the final product, can 'remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme'."[332] This contract stipulated that all questions directed at Charles must be pre-approved and vetted by representatives of Charles.[332] Guest appearances on television Charles has occasionally appeared on television. In 1984, he read his children's book The Old Man of Lochnagar for the BBC's Jackanory series. The UK soap opera crtion Street featured an appearance by Charles during the show's 40th anniversary in 2000,[333] as did the New Zealand young adult cartoon series bro'Town (2005), after he attended a performance by the show's creators during a tour of the country.[334] Charles was interviewed with Princes William and Harry by Ant & Dec to mark the 30th anniversary of the Prince's Trust in 2006[335] and in 2016 was interviewed by them again along with his sons and the duch*ess of Cornwall to mark the 40th anniversary.[336] His saving of the Scottish stately home Dumfries House was the subject of Alan Titchmarsh's documentary Royal Restoration, which aired on TV in May 2012.[337] Also in May 2012, Charles tried his hand at being a weather presenter for the BBC, reporting the forecast for Scotland as part of their annual week at Holyrood Palace alongside Christopher Blanchett. He injected humour in his report, asking, "Who the hell wrote this script?" as references were made to royal residences.[338] In December 2015, Channel 4 News revealed that interviews with Charles were subject to a contract that restricts questions to those previously approved, and gives his staff oversight of editing and the right to "remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme". Channel 4 News decided not to proceed with an interview on this basis, which some journalists believed would put them at risk of breaching the Ofcom Broadcasting Code on editorial independence and transparency.[339] Residences and finance Clarence House, Charles's official residence as Prince of Wales from 2003 Clarence House, previously the residence of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, was Charles's official London residence from 2003 after being renovated at a cost of £4.5 million.[340][341] He previously shared Apartments 8 and 9 at Kensington Palace with his first wife Diana, before moving to York House, St James's Palace, which remained his principal residence until 2003.[341] As prince, his primary source of income was generated from the Duchy of Cornwall, which owns 133,658 acres of land (around 54,090 hectares), including farming, residential, and commercial properties, as well as an investment portfolio. Highgrove House in Gloucestershire is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, having been purchased for his use in 1980, and which Charles rents for £336,000 per annum.[342] The Public Accounts Committee published its 25th report into the Duchy of Cornwall accounts in November 2013 noting that the duchy performed well in 2012–13, increasing its total income and producing an overall surplus of £19.1 million.[343] In 2007, Charles purchased a 192-acre property (150 acres of grazing and parkland, and 40 acres of woodland) in Carmarthenshire, and applied for permission to convert the farm into a Welsh home for him and the duch*ess of Cornwall, to be rented out as holiday flats when the couple is not in residence.[344] A neighbouring family said the proposals flouted local planning regulations, and the application was put on hold temporarily while a report was drafted on how the alterations would affect the local bat population.[345] Charles and Camilla first stayed at the new property, called Llwynywermod, in June 2008.[346] They also stay at Birkhall for some holidays, which is a private residence on the Balmoral Castle estate in Scotland, and was previously used by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[347] In 2016, it was reported that his estates received £100,000 a year in European Union agricultural subsidies.[348] Starting in 1993, Charles has paid tax voluntarily under the Memorandum of Understanding on Royal Taxation, updated 2013.[349] In December 2012, Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs were asked to investigate alleged tax avoidance by the Duchy of Cornwall.[350] The Duchy of Cornwall is named in the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment that were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung. The papers show that the Duchy invested in a Bermuda-based carbon credits trading company run by one of Charles's Cambridge contemporaries. The investment was kept secret but there is no suggestion that Charles or the estate avoided UK tax.[351] Titles, styles, honours and arms Main article: List of titles and honours of Charles III See also: List of awards received by Charles III A logo with "CR III" and a crown (coloured) Royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Tudor Crown[352] A logo with "CR III" and a crown Stylised version of the Scottish royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Crown of Scotland[353] Titles and styles 1948 – 1952: His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Edinburgh[354] 1952 – 1958: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall[fn 7] 26 July 1958 – 8 September 2022: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales in Scotland: 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022: His Royal Highness The Duke of Rothesay[fn 8] 8 September 2022 – present: His Majesty The King Between the death of his father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh on 9 April 2021 and the death of his mother Elizabeth II, Charles also held the title of Duke of Edinburgh.[355] The title merged with the Crown upon his accession to the throne.[356] When conversing with the King, the correct etiquette is to address him initially as Your Majesty and thereafter as Sir.[357] Honours and military appointments Charles has held substantive ranks in the armed forces of a number of countries since he was commissioned as a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force in 1972. Charles's first honorary appointment in the armed forces was as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Regiment of Wales in 1969; since then, he has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 32 military formations throughout the Commonwealth, including the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army.[358] Since 2009, Charles holds the second-highest ranks in all three branches of the Canadian Forces and, on 16 June 2012, the Queen awarded him the highest honorary rank in all three branches of the British Armed Forces, "to acknowledge his support in her role as Commander-in-Chief", installing him as Admiral of the Fleet, Field Marshal and Marshal of the Royal Air Force.[359] Charles has been inducted into seven orders and received eight decorations from the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 20 different honours from foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Arms Main article: Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom On his mother's death, Charles became king and therefore inherited the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom and Canada. The design of King Charles III's royal cypher, featuring the Tudor crown rather than the St Edward's Crown, was announced on 27 September 2022. According to the College of Arms, the Tudor crown will now be used in representations of the Royal Arms and on uniforms and crown badges.[360] As Prince of Wales, Charles used the arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a white label, and an inescutcheon of the Principality of Wales surmounted by the heir-apparent's crown. Coat of arms of the Prince of Wales.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg Coat of arms as Prince of Wales (1958–2022) Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom for use in Scotland Banners, flags, and standards As sovereign Royal Standard United Kingdom (outside Scotland) Scotland Main article: Royal Standard of the United Kingdom The Royal Standard is used to represent the King in the United Kingdom and overseas when he makes official visits. It is the royal arms in banner form undifferentiated, having been used by successive British monarchs since 1702. As Prince of Wales Banner of arms Royal Standard of the Prince of Wales Standard for Wales Standard for Scotland Banner of arms of the Duke of Cornwall Standard of the Prince of Wales for personal use in Canada The banners used by Charles whilst Prince of Wales varied depending upon location. His Personal Standard was the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom differenced as in his arms with a label of three points Argent, and the escutcheon of the arms of the Principality of Wales in the centre. It is used outside Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, and Canada, and throughout the entire United Kingdom when the prince is acting in an official capacity associated with the UK Armed Forces.[361] The personal flag for use in Wales was based upon the Royal Badge of Wales (the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd), which consist of four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field, and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field. Superimposed is an escutcheon Vert bearing the single-arched coronet of the Prince of Wales.[361] In Scotland, the personal banner used since 1974 is based upon three ancient Scottish titles: Duke of Rothesay (heir apparent to the King of Scots), High Steward of Scotland and Lord of the Isles. The flag is divided into four quadrants like the arms of the Chief of Clan Stewart of Appin; the first and fourth quadrants comprise a gold field with a blue and silver checkered band in the centre; the second and third quadrants display a black galley on a silver field. The arms are differenced from those of Appin by the addition of an inescutcheon bearing the tressured lion rampant of Scotland; defaced by a plain label of three points Azure to indicate the heir apparent.[361] In Cornwall, the banner was the arms of the Duke of Cornwall: "Sable 15 bezants Or", that is, a black field bearing 15 gold coins.[361] In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic banner for the Prince of Wales for use in Canada, consisting of the shield of the Arms of Canada defaced with both a blue roundel of the Prince of Wales's feathers surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, and a white label of three points.[362] Issue Name Birth Marriage Children Date Spouse William, Prince of Wales 21 June 1982 (age 40) 29 April 2011 Catherine Middleton Prince George of Wales Princess Charlotte of Wales Prince Louis of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex 15 September 1984 (age 38) 19 May 2018 Meghan Markle Archie Mountbatten-Windsor Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor Ancestry Ancestors of Charles III[363] See also Cultural depictions of Charles III List of current monarchs of sovereign states Notes As the reigning monarch, Charles does not usually use a family name, but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1] As monarch, Charles is the Supreme Governor of the Anglican Church of England. He is also a member of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.[2] In addition to his active service listed here, Charles holds ranks and honorary appointments in the armed forces of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea as well as the United Kingdom. In addition to the United Kingdom, the King's fourteen other realms are: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu. Prince Charles's godparents were: the King of the United Kingdom (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway (his paternal cousin twice removed and maternal great-great-uncle by marriage, for whom Charles's great-great-uncle the Earl of Athlone stood proxy); Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother); Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece and Denmark (his paternal great-uncle, for whom the Duke of Edinburgh stood proxy); the Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle).[7] The Stuart kings Charles I, who was beheaded, and Charles II who was known for his promiscuous lifestyle. Charles Edward Stuart, once a Stuart pretender to the English and Scottish thrones, was called "Charles III" by his supporters.[161] As the eldest son of the new monarch, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall upon the death of King George VI, on 6 February 1952. 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Retrieved 27 June 2012.; "Prince Charles awarded highest rank in all three armed forces". The Daily Telegraph. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.; "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557. "Royal Cypher". College of Arms. Retrieved 28 September 2022. "Standards". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016. "The Prince of Wales". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016. Paget, Gerald (1977). The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (2 vols). Edinburgh: Charles Skilton. ISBN 978-0-284-40016-1. Sources Brandreth, Gyles (2007). Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair. Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-949087-6. Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-12996-X. Holden, Anthony (1979). Prince Charles. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-593-02470-6. Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35274-5. OCLC 59360110. Lacey, Robert (2008). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4391-0839-0. Smith, Sally Bedell (2000). Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Signet. ISBN 978-0-451-20108-9. Further reading Benson, Ross (1994). Charles: The Untold Story. St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-312-10950-9. Bower, Tom (2018). The Rebel Prince, The Power, Passion and Defiance of Prince Charles. William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-829173-0. Brown, Michèle (1980). Prince Charles. Crown. ISBN 978-0-517-54019-0. Campbell, J. (1981). Charles: Prince of Our Times. Smithmark. ISBN 978-0-7064-0968-0. Cathcart, Helen (1977). Prince Charles: The biography (illustrated ed.). Taplinger Pub. Co; Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8008-6555-9. Fisher, Graham; Fisher, Heather (1977). Charles: The Man and the Prince. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7091-6095-3. Gilleo, Alma (1978). Prince Charles: Growing Up in Buckingham Palace. Childs World. ISBN 978-0-89565-029-0. Graham, Caroline (2005). Camilla and Charles: The Love Story. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84454-195-9. Heald, Tim; Mohrs, Mayo (1979). The Man Who Will Be King H.R.H. (Prince of Wales Charles). New York: Arbor House. Hedley, Olwen (1969). Charles, 21st Prince of Wales. Pitkin Pictorials. ISBN 978-0-85372-027-0. Hodgson, Howard (2007). Charles: The Man Who Will Be King (illustrated ed.). John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84454-306-9. Holden, Anthony (1988). King Charles III: A Biography. Grove. ISBN 978-1-55584-309-0. Holden, Anthony (1998). Charles at Fifty. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50175-3. Holden, Anthony (1999). Charles: A Biography. Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-552-99744-7. Jencks, Charles (1988). Prince, Architects & New Wave Monarchy. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-1010-9. Jobson, Robert (2018). Charles at Seventy – Thoughts, Hopes & Dreams: Thoughts, Hopes and Dreams. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-78606-887-3. Junor, Penny (1998). Charles: Victim or Villain?. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-255900-3. Lane, Peter (1988). Prince Charles: a study in development. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-3320-2. Liversidge, Douglas (1975). Prince Charles: monarch in the making. A. Barker. ISBN 978-0-213-16568-0. Martin, Christopher (1990). Prince Charles and the Architectural Debate (Architectural Design Profile). St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04048-2. Mayer, Catherine (2015). Born to Be King: Prince Charles on Planet Windsor. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-1-62779-438-1. Mayer, Catherine (2015). Charles: The Heart of a King. Random House. ISBN 978-0-7535-5593-4. Nugent, Jean (1982). Prince Charles, England's Future King. Dillon. ISBN 978-0-87518-226-1. Regan, Simon (1977). Charles, the Clown Prince. Everest Books. ISBN 978-0-905018-50-8. Smith, Sally Bedell (2017). Prince Charles: The Passions and Paradoxes of an Improbable Life. Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7980-0. Veon, Joan M. (1997). Prince Charles: The Sustainable Prince. Hearthstone. ISBN 978-1-57558-021-0. Wakeford, Geoffrey (1962). Charles, Prince of Wales. Associated Newspapers. External links The King at the Royal Family website The Duke of Cornwall at the Duchy of Cornwall website Charles III at IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Charles III House of Windsor Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg Born: 14 November 1948 Regnal titles Preceded by Elizabeth II King of the United Kingdom, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent Heir apparent: The Prince of Wales Honorary titles Preceded by Elizabeth II Head of the Commonwealth 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent British royalty Vacant Title last held by Edward (VIII) Prince of Wales 26 July 1958 – 8 September 2022 Succeeded by The Prince William Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022 Peerage of the United Kingdom Preceded by The Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh 9 April 2021 – 8 September 2022 Merged with the Crown Academic offices Preceded by The Earl Mountbatten of Burma President of the United World Colleges 1978–1995 Succeeded by The Queen of Jordan Preceded by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother President of the Royal College of Music 1993–present Incumbent Honorary titles Preceded by The Duke of Gloucester Great Master of the Order of the Bath 10 June 1974 – 8 September 2022 Vacant Order of precedence First Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom HM The King Succeeded by The Prince of Wales vte Charles III King of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (2022–present) Realms Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBelizeCanadaGrenadaJamaicaNew ZealandPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSolomon IslandsTuvaluUnited Kingdom Titles and honours Head of the CommonwealthDefender of the FaithSupreme Governor of the Church of EnglandHead of the British Armed ForcesCommander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed ForcesLord of MannDuke of NormandyKing's Official Birthday Family Diana, Princess of Wales (first wife)Queen Camilla (second wife)William, Prince of Wales (elder son)Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (younger son)Elizabeth II (mother)Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (father)Anne, Princess Royal (sister)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (brother)Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar (brother)Mountbatten-Windsor (family) Life as Prince of Wales Investiture of the Prince of WalesFirst wedding guest listSecond weddingOverseas visits 2022 royal tour of Canada2022 State Opening of ParliamentBlack spider memosPrince of Wales v Associated Newspapers Ltd Accession and crtion Proclamation of Accessioncrtion Royal guestsParticipants in the processionMedalHonoursAward Reign HouseholdPrime ministersOperation Menai Bridge Charities and campaigns Mutton Renaissance CampaignThe Prince's Charities British Asian TrustBusiness in the CommunityChildren & the ArtsIn Kind Directiwill CampaignThe Prince's FoundationThe Prince's Foundation for Integrated HealthThe Prince's School of Traditional ArtsThe Prince of Wales's Charitable FundRoyal Drawing SchoolTurquoise Mountain FoundationYouth Business ScotlandThe Prince's May Day NetworkThe Prince's TrustSustainable Markets Initiative Great Reset Residences As King Buckingham Palace (official)Windsor Castle (official)Holyrood Palace (official, Scotland)Hillsborough Castle (official, Northern Ireland)Sandringham House (private)Balmoral Castle (private)Craigowan Lodge (private) As Prince of Wales Clarence House (official)Highgrove House (private)BirkhallLlwynywermod Awards given and created List of environmental/social interest awards receivedPrince of Wales's Intelligence Community AwardsPrince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage LeadershipThe Sun Military Awards Business ventures Duchy Home FarmDumfries HouseHighgrove House ShopsPoundburyWaitrose Duchy Organic Popular culture Documentaries Royal Family (1969)Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role (1994)Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007)Elizabeth at 90: A Family Tribute (2016) Film and television Her Royal Highness..? (1981)Chorus Girls (1981)Charles & Diana: A Royal Love Story (1982)The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana (1982)Spitting Image (1984–1996, 2020–)Charles and Diana: Unhappily Ever After (1992)Willi und die Windzors (1996)Whatever Love Means (2005)The Queen (2006 film)The Queen (2009 TV serial)King Charles III (play, 2014; film, 2017)The Windsors (TV series, 2016–2020; play, 2021)The Crown (2019–)The Prince (2021) Publications Bibliography The Old Man of Lochnagar (1980)A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture (1989)Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World (2010) Miscellaneous Prince Charles IslandPrince Charles stream tree frog Links to related articles vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the GreatEdward the ElderÆlfweardÆthelstanEdmund IEadredEadwigEdgar the PeacefulEdward the MartyrÆthelred the UnreadySweynEdmund Ironsidecnu*tHarold IHarthacnu*tEdward the ConfessorHarold GodwinsonEdgar ÆthelingWilliam IWilliam IIHenry IStephenMatildaHenry IIHenry the Young KingRichard IJohnHenry IIIEdward IEdward IIEdward IIIRichard IIHenry IVHenry VHenry VIEdward IVEdward VRichard IIIHenry VIIHenry VIIIEdward VIJaneMary I and PhilipElizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpinDonald IConstantine IÁedGiricEochaidDonald IIConstantine IIMalcolm IIndulfDubCuilénAmlaíbKenneth IIConstantine IIIKenneth IIIMalcolm IIDuncan IMacbethLulachMalcolm IIIDonald IIIDuncan IIEdgarAlexander IDavid IMalcolm IVWilliam IAlexander IIAlexander IIIMargaretJohnRobert IDavid IIEdward BalliolRobert IIRobert IIIJames IJames IIJames IIIJames IVJames VMary IJames VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James I and VICharles ICharles IIJames II and VIIWilliam III and II and Mary IIAnne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 AnneGeorge IGeorge IIGeorge IIIGeorge IVWilliam IVVictoriaEdward VIIGeorge VEdward VIIIGeorge VIElizabeth IICharles III Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte Order of precedence in the United Kingdom (gentlemen) Shared (royal family) The KingThe Prince of Wales (in Scotland: the Duke of Rothesay)The Duke of Sussex (in Scotland: the Earl of Dumbarton)Prince George of WalesPrince Louis of WalesArchie Mountbatten-WindsorThe Duke of York (in Scotland: the Earl of Inverness)The Earl of Wessex (in Scotland: the Earl of Forfar)Viscount SevernPeter PhillipsThe Duke of GloucesterThe Duke of KentThe Earl of SnowdonPrince Michael of Kent England and Wales Justin Welby, Archbishop of CanterburyBrandon Lewis, Lord ChancellorStephen Cottrell, Archbishop of YorkSir Lindsay Hoyle, Speaker of the House of CommonsThe Lord McFall of Alcluith, Lord SpeakerThe Lord Reed of Allermuir, President of the Supreme Court of the United KingdomThe Lord Burnett of Maldon, Lord Chief Justice of England and WalesThe Lord True, Lord Privy SealAmbassadors and High CommissionersThe Baron Carrington, Lord Great ChamberlainThe Duke of Norfolk, Earl MarshalThe Earl of Dalhousie, Lord StewardThe Lord Parker of Minsmere, Lord ChamberlainThe Lord de Mauley, Master of the Horse Scotland Lord LieutenantsSheriffs PrincipalBrandon Lewis, Lord High ChancellorIain Greenshields, Moderator of the General AssemblyAlister Jack, Secretary of State for ScotlandThe Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of ScotlandThe Duke of Argyll, Master of the Household in Scotland Northern Ireland Lords Lieutenant of counties and citiesHigh sheriffs of countiesJohn McDowell, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland)Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh (Roman Catholic)Dermot Farrell, Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic)Michael Jackson, Archbishop of Dublin (Church of Ireland)Charles McMullen, Moderator of the Presbyterian ChurchLord Mayor of Belfast and Mayors of boroughs in Northern IrelandBrandon Lewis, Lord High ChancellorSir Lindsay Hoyle, Commons SpeakerThe Lord McFall of Alcluith, Lord SpeakerThe Baron Carrington, Lord Great ChamberlainThe Duke of Norfolk, Earl MarshalThe Earl of Dalhousie, Lord StewardThe Lord Parker of Minsmere, Lord ChamberlainThe Lord de Mauley, Master of the Horse not including short-term appointments, visiting dignitaries and most peers vte British princes The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. 1st generation King George II 2nd generation Frederick, Prince of WalesPrince George WilliamPrince William, Duke of Cumberland 3rd generation King George IIIPrince Edward, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and EdinburghPrince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and StrathearnPrince Frederick 4th generation King George IVPrince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyKing William IVPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and StrathearnKing Ernest Augustus of HanoverPrince Augustus Frederick, Duke of SussexPrince Adolphus, Duke of CambridgePrince OctaviusPrince AlfredPrince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 5th generation Prince Albert1King George V of HanoverPrince George, Duke of Cambridge 6th generation King Edward VIIPrince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and StrathearnPrince Leopold, Duke of AlbanyPrince Ernest Augustus 7th generation Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and AvondaleKing George VPrince Alexander John of WalesAlfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Arthur of ConnaughtPrince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince George William of HanoverPrince Christian of HanoverPrince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick 8th generation King Edward VIIIKing George VIPrince Henry, Duke of GloucesterPrince George, Duke of KentPrince JohnAlastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and StrathearnJohann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Ernest Augustus of HanoverPrince George William of Hanover 9th generation Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2Prince William of GloucesterPrince Richard, Duke of GloucesterPrince Edward, Duke of KentPrince Michael of Kent 10th generation King Charles IIIPrince Andrew, Duke of YorkPrince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar 11th generation William, Prince of WalesPrince Harry, Duke of SussexJames Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn3 12th generation Prince George of WalesPrince Louis of WalesArchie Mountbatten-Windsor3 1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see James, Viscount Severn#Titles and styles and Archie Mountbatten-Windsor#Title, styles and succession for details. Princes that lost their title and status or did not use the title are shown in italics. vte Princes of Wales Edward (1301–1307)Edward (1343–1376)Richard (1376–1377)Henry (1399–1413)Edward (1454–1471)Richard (1460; disputed)Edward (1471–1483)Edward (1483–1484)Arthur (1489–1502)Henry (1504–1509)Edward (1537–1547)Henry (1610–1612)Charles (1616–1625)Charles (1641–1649)James (1688)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1729–1751)George (1751–1760)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1958–2022)William (2022–present) See also: Principality of Wales vte Dukes of Cornwall Edward (1337–1376)Richard (1376–1377)Henry (1399–1413)Henry (1421–1422)Edward (1453–1471)Richard (1460; disputed)Edward (1470–1483)Edward (1483–1484)Arthur (1486–1502)Henry (1502–1509)Henry (1511)Edward (1537–1547)Henry Frederick (1603–1612)Charles (1612–1625)Charles (1630–1649)James (1688–1701/2)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1727–1751)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1952–2022)William (2022–present) Cornwall Portal vte Dukes of Rothesay David (1398–1402)James (1402–1406)Alexander (1430)James (1430–1437)James (1452–1460)James (1473–1488)James (1507–1508)Arthur (1509–1510)James (1512–1513)James (1540–1541)James (1566–1567)Henry Frederick (1594–1612)Charles (1612–1625)Charles James (1629)Charles (1630–1649)James (1688–1689)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1727–1751)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1952–2022)William (2022–present) vte Dukes of Edinburgh Frederick (1726–1751)George (1751–1760)Dukes of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1764–1834)Alfred (1866–1900)Philip (1947–2021)Charles (2021–2022) vte Monarchs of Canada House of Hanover (1867–1901) Victoria House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1901–1917) Edward VIIGeorge V House of Windsor (1917–present) George VEdward VIIIGeorge VIElizabeth IICharles III vte Heads of state of Jamaica Monarch (from 1962) Elizabeth IICharles III flag Jamaica portal Governor-General (from 1962) BlackburneCampbellGlasspoleCookeHallAllen vte Current monarchs of sovereign states Africa Eswatini Mswati IIILesotho Letsie IIIMorocco Mohammed VI Americas Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Belize Canada Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Charles III Asia Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al KhalifaBhutan Jigme Khesar Namgyel WangchuckBrunei Hassanal BolkiahCambodia Norodom SihamoniJapan NaruhitoJordan Abdullah IIKuwait Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahMalaysia Abdullah of PahangOman Haitham bin TariqQatar Tamim bin Hamad Al ThaniSaudi Arabia SalmanThailand Vajiralongkorn Europe Andorra Joan Enric Vives i Sicília and Emmanuel MacronBelgium PhilippeDenmark Margrethe IILiechtenstein Hans-Adam IILuxembourg HenriMonaco Albert IIKingdom of the Netherlands Willem-AlexanderNorway Harald VSpain Felipe VISweden Carl XVI GustafUnited Kingdom Charles IIIVatican City Francis Oceania Australia Cook Islands New Zealand Niue Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Tuvalu Charles IIITonga Tupou VI See also: Current heirs of sovereign monarchies vte Heads of state of the G20 Argentina FernándezAustralia Charles IIIBrazil BolsonaroCanada Charles IIIChina XiEuropean Union MichelFrance MacronGermany SteinmeierIndia MurmuIndonesia JokowiItaly MattarellaJapan NaruhitoMexico López ObradorRussia PutinSaudi Arabia SalmanSouth Africa RamaphosaSouth Korea YoonTurkey ErdoğanUnited Kingdom Charles IIIUnited States Biden vte Great Masters of the Order of the Bath John Montagu, 2nd Duke of MontaguPrince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince William, Duke of Clarence and St AndrewsPrince Augustus Frederick, Duke of SussexAlbert, Prince ConsortAlbert Edward, Prince of WalesPrince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and StrathearnPrince Henry, Duke of GloucesterCharles, Prince of Wales CivilKnightsGrandCrossoftheBath.JPG vte Monarchies MonarchImperial, royal and noble ranksList of current sovereign monarchsList of current constituent monarchsList of monarchy referendums Type AbsoluteConstitutionalDiarchyElectiveFederalHereditaryNon-sovereignPersonal unionRegency Topics AbdicationAbolition of monarchyAristocracyCriticism of monarchyDemocratizationDecolonizationDynastyGovernmentHead of stateLegitimacy (political)OligarchyOrder of successionRepublicanismSelf-proclaimed monarchySovereignty Titles ChhatrapatiEmperorKing Queen regnantPrince regnantRajakhanTsarSultanShahPharaoh Current Africa EswatiniLesothom*oroccolist Asia BahrainBhutanBruneiCambodiaJapanJordanKuwaitMalaysiaOmanQatarSaudi ArabiaThailandUnited Arab Emirateslist Europe AndorraBelgiumDenmarkLiechtensteinLuxembourgMonacoNetherlandsNorwaySpainSwedenVatican City Oceania Tonga Commonwealth realms (Charles III) Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBelizeCanadaGrenadaJamaicaNew Zealand Cook IslandsNiuePapua New Guinea Saint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSolomon IslandsTuvaluUnited Kingdom Former Africa AdamawaAnkoleAussaBarotselandBagirmiBornuBurundiCentral AfricaDahomeyEgyptEthiopiaGhanaGommaGummaKaffaKongoLibyaLubaMadagascarMaliMaoreMaraviMwaliNdzuwaniNgazidjaRwandaShillukIslands of RefreshmentTunisiaWitulandWassoulouYekeZanzibarZimbabweand other Americas AraucaníaAztecBrazilHaitiIncaMexicoMiskitoSurinameTalamancaTrinidadThirteen Colonies Asia AfghanistanAsirBangladeshBukharaBurmaCebuChehabChinaDapitanHejazIndonesiaIran (Qajar)IraqJabal ShammarKandy (Sri Lanka)KathiriKhivaKoreaKumulKurdistanLaosMaguindanaoMahraMaldivesManchukuoMongoliaNajranNepalQu'aitiRyukyuSarawakShanSikkimSip Song Chau TaiSuluSyriaTibetTungningUpper AsirUpper YafaVietnamYemen (South Yemen) Europe AlbaniaAragonAsturiasAustriaAustria-HungaryBavariaBosniaBrittanyBulgariaCrimeaCiliciaCorsicaCyprusFinlandFranceGaliciaGeorgiaGermanyGreeceGranadaHanoverHungaryIcelandImeretiIrelandItalyKartli-KakhetiLithuaniaMajorcaManMoldaviaMontenegroNavarreNeuchâtelOttoman EmpirePapal StatesPiedmont-SardiniaPoland–LithuaniaPortugalPrussiaRomaniaRussiaSamosSaxonySavoyScotlandSerbiaTavolaraTwo SiciliesTuscanyUkraineUnited Baltic DuchyYugoslaviaValenciaWürttemberg Oceania AbemamaBora BoraEaster IslandKingdom of FijiHawaiiHuahineMangarevaNiuē-FekaiNuku HivaRaiateaRapa ItiRarotongaRimataraRurutuTahuataTahiti Commonwealth realms BarbadosCeylon (Sri Lanka)FijiThe GambiaGhanaGuyanaIndia (British Raj, princely states)Irish Free State / IrelandKenyaMalawiMaltaMauritiusNigeriaPakistanRhodesiaSierra LeoneSouth AfricaTanganyikaTrinidad and TobagoUganda Charles III at Wikipedia's sister projects: Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Portals: icon Monarchy flag United Kingdom flag England flag Cornwall icon London flag Scotland flag Wales icon Northern Ireland flag Australia flag Belize flag Canada flag Jamaica flag New Zealand flag Tuvalu Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General ISNI 12VIAF 1WorldCat National libraries 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descentEnglish people of Greek descentEnglish people of Russian descentEnglish people of Scottish descentGraduates of the Royal Air Force College CranwellHeads of the CommonwealthHeads of state of AustraliaHeads of state of Antigua and BarbudaHeads of state of the BahamasHeads of state of BelizeHeads of state of CanadaHeads of state of GrenadaHeads of state of JamaicaHeads of state of New ZealandHeads of state of Papua New GuineaHeads of state of Saint Kitts and NevisHeads of state of Saint LuciaHeads of state of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesHeads of state of the Solomon IslandsHeads of state of TuvaluHeirs to the British throneHonorary air commodoresHouse of WindsorMarshals of the Royal Air ForceMonarchs of the Isle of ManMonarchs of the United KingdomMountbatten-Windsor familyPeople educated at Cheam SchoolPeople educated at Geelong Grammar SchoolPeople educated at GordonstounPeople educated at Hill House SchoolPeople from WestminsterPeople named in the Paradise PapersPhilanthropists from LondonPrinces of the United KingdomPrinces of WalesRoyal Australian Air Force air marshalsRoyal Navy admirals of the fleetSustainability advocatesWriters from LondonSons of monarchsPeople of the National Rifle Association Special Moments From The Queen's Funeral, Including Kate Middleton Comforting Charlotte Today the nation marks the state funeral of Her Majesty, the Queen, who is later being laid to rest with her husband Prince Philip. Here, we explore some of the most touching moments you might have missed during the day's proceedings Queen Elizabeth II's funeral took place today at Westminster Abbey, bringing together all of the royal family. Those invited to the State Funeral arrived at Westminster Abbey on Monday, September 19, before the service's commencement at 11am. The order of service contained elements that paid tribute to Queen Elizabeth II's 'extraordinary reign and Her Majesty’s remarkable life of service as Head of State, Nation and Commonwealth,' as per the Royal Family's official website. The occasion brought with it so many special moments, some of which you might have missed during the overwhelming series of events. Two of the Prince and Princess of Wales' children, Prince George, nine, and Princess Charlotte, seven, arrived for the funeral, accompanied by the princess and Camilla, Queen Consort. queen funeral ANTHONY DEVLINGETTY IMAGES Prince Edward and Sophie, the Countess of Wessex, who sat up at the front of the service, were feeling moved early on in the ceremony. The Prince was seen wiping away his tears with a handkerchief. britains prince edward, earl of wessex and britains sophie, countess of wessex attend with britains prince william, prince of wales and britains catherine, princess of wales, the state funeral service for britains queen elizabeth ii, at westminster abbey in london on september 19, 2022 leaders from around the world will attend the state funeral of queen elizabeth ii the countrys longest serving monarch, who died aged 96 after 70 years on the throne, will be honoured with a state funeral on monday morning at westminster abbey photo by ben stansall pool afp photo by ben stansallpoolafp via getty images BEN STANSALLGETTY IMAGES ADVERTIsem*nT - CONTINUE READING BELOW This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. Prince George was seen seemingly wiping away a tear as well, as the choir sang. This came after he and his sister Prince Charlotte joined their parents to walk behind the Queen’s coffin ahead of Her Majesty’s funeral ceremony. queen funeral special moments CHRIS JACKSONGETTY IMAGES Prior to the service, the Princess of Wales was also seen holding Princess Charlotte’s hand, and giving her a reassuring touch on the shoulder. Meghan Markle was later seen very emotional and crying outside of Westminster Abbey following the funeral ceremony. queen funeral special moments SAMIR HUSSEINGETTY IMAGES ADVERTIsem*nT - CONTINUE READING BELOW The duch*ess of Sussex was pictured wiping away her tears. The Archbishop of Canterbury gave the Sermon at the funeral, at which point he said of the Queen's dedication to serving the nation: 'Rarely has such a promise been so well kept.' This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. The two-minute silence at the state funeral was a poignant moment in itself, and set the tone for the end of the service at around noon. The wreath, placed atop the Queen's coffin, bore an extremely special message from King Charles III, the Queen's son and heir: 'In loving and devoted memory, Charles R,' - with the 'R' standing for 'Rex' now that Charles is King. flowers are seen on the coffin of britains queen elizabeth on the day of her state funeral and burial, in london, britain, september 19, 2022 photo by hannah mckay pool afp photo by hannah mckaypoolafp via getty images HANNAH MCKAY This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. queen funeral special moments HANNAH MCKAYGETTY IMAGES ADVERTIsem*nT - CONTINUE READING BELOW This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. Buckingham Palace household staff were also seen lining up to pay their respects to the Queen. queen funeral special moments CARL COURT Following the funeral, video footage taken at Wellington Arch seemingly showed Princess Charlotte telling her brother Prince George to bow as their great-grandmother's coffin passed them. They were seen having a conversation while waiting for Her Majesty's coffin to be placed onto the royal hearse, and Princess Charlotte can be seen saying: 'You need to bow,' to Prince George. He appeared to be listening to his sister earnestly. Prince William and Prince Harry walked together in the procession of the Queen's funeral, while the three eldest grandchildren of the Queen - Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward - walked behind King Charles. In a special vigil on Saturday night, Prince William and Prince Harry stood at the head and foot of the Queen's coffin with all eight of the monarch's grandchildren. The brothers, who were without their spouses, stood in quiet reflection around their grandmother for a quarter of an hour to pay their respects. Prince William was beside Zara Tindall and Peter Phillips, and Prince Harry stood next to Princesses Beatrice, Princess Eugenie, Lady Louise, and James, Viscount Severn. Prior to this, the pair walked together during Wednesday's procession of the Queen's coffin from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall, where she lay in state in advance of the funeral. queen funeral special moments SAMIR HUSSEINGETTY IMAGES ADVERTIsem*nT - CONTINUE READING BELOW royal family plans following queen funeral PHIL NOBLEGETTY IMAGES During a brief service honouring the late Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Hall, Meghan Markle was seen paying her respects by doing a traditional curtsy - a moment shared by many of her well wishers via social media. She and Prince Harry were later seen heartwarmingly holding hands as they departed the service. queen funeral special moments MARCO BERTORELLOGETTY IMAGES During a trip to Norfolk, the Prince and Princess of Wales viewed floral tributes left outside Sandringham House, the country home owned by King Charles, at which point the prince opened up about finding Wednesday's procession walk 'challenging'. This was due to it reminding him of Princess Diana's funeral. queen funeral special moments GETTY IMAGES ADVERTIsem*nT - CONTINUE READING BELOW In the same way that he and his younger brother Prince Harry walked behind the gun carriage in Wednesday's procession, they did so 25 years ago during the funeral of their late mother. As per the BBC, the prince told one woman in the crowd at Sandringham: 'I mean the walk yesterday was challenging, it brought back a few memories...' Receptionist Jane Wells from Long Sutton in Lincolnshire said she told Prince William how proud his mother would have been of him. queen funeral special moments GETTY IMAGES She recalled: 'He said how hard it was yesterday because it brought back memories of his mother's funeral.' Caroline Barwick-Walters of Neath in Wales recalled telling Prince William: 'Thank you for sharing your grief with the nation', and that he replied: 'She was everybody's grandmother.' At the time, he and Middleton had both been speaking to those who gathered outside Sandringham House to honour the Queen. During King Charles' first televised address to the nation as the new monarch, which saw him refer to the 'deep sense of gratitude' he had for his mother, he also spoke fondly of his royal family members. ADVERTIsem*nT - CONTINUE READING BELOW 'This is also a time of change for my family,' he began. queen funeral special moments WPA POOLGETTY IMAGES Speaking of his wife, Camilla, Queen Consort, first, he said: 'I count on the loving help of my darling wife Camilla in recognition of her own loyal public service since our marriage 17 years ago. 'She becomes my Queen Consort. I know she will bring to the demands of her new role, the steadfast devotion to duty on which I have come to rely so much.' He later addressed Prince William and Middleton, saying: 'As my heir, William assumes the Scottish titles which have meant so much to me, he succeeds me as Duke of Cornwall and takes on the responsibilities for the Duchy of Cornwall which I have undertaken for more than five decades. ' queen funeral special moments BETTMANNGETTY IMAGES The King added: 'With Catherine beside him, our new Prince and Princess of Wales I know will continue to inspire and lead our national conversations, helping to bring the marshal to the centre ground where vital help can be given.' King Charles also said of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle: 'I want also to express my love for Harry and Meghan as they continue to build their lives overseas.' He concluded with a final tribute to his late mother, which included a final line from Shakespeare's Hamlet: 'And to my darling mama as you begin your last great journey to join my dear late papa, I want simply to say this: thank you. Thank you for your love and devotion to our family and to the family of nations you have served so diligently all these years. May flights of angels sing thee to to thy rest.' The Queen died peacefully at Balmoral Castle on Thursday, September 8, surrounded by her family. List of the guests who attended the Queen's funeral Heads of state, former prime ministers and members of foreign royal families were among those attending the funeral men Bookmark Enter your postcode for local news and info Enter your postcode Prince Edward wipes away tears at the funeral for The Queen Prince Edward wipes away tears at the funeral for The Queen (Image: ITV) Queen Elizabeth II's life was commemorated during a state funeral at Westminster Abbey on Monday (September 19). Some 2,000 people attended the ceremony, which brings a national 10-day mourning period to a close. Guests at the Queen’s state funeral included heads of state, former prime ministers and members of foreign royal families. Almost 200 people who were recognised in the Queen’s Birthday Honours earlier this year also attended, including those who made extraordinary contributions to the response to the cvd-19 pandemic and those who have volunteered in their local communities. Read more:Pictures show Greater Manchester quiet and empty amid Queen's funeral Other guests included representatives from both Houses of Parliament, the devolved administrations, the armed forces, the police service and the civil service. 138259102799 SIMILAR ARTICLES TO THIS partner logo POWERED BY 138405386249 138398850746 138329481766 138329481766 Here is a look at some of the names who attended the funeral: Royal family The King and the Queen Consort The Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Sir Tim Laurence The Duke of York The Earl and Countess of Wessex The Prince and Princess of Wales Prince George Princess Charlotte The Duke and duch*ess of Sussex Mr Peter Phillips The Duke of Gloucester The Earl of Snowdon The Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Princess Eugenie, Mrs Jack Brooksbank Mr Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Mr Jack Brooksbank Sarah, duch*ess of York The Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor Viscount Severn Mr and Mrs Michael Tindall Viscount Linley The Lady Margarita Armstrong-Jones Mr Daniel and the Lady Sarah Chatto Mr Samuel Chatto 2nd Lieutenant Arthur Chatto RM The duch*ess of Gloucester Earl and Countess of Ulster Lord Culloden The Lady Cosima Windsor The Lady Davina Lewis Miss Senna Lewis Mr George and The Lady Rose Gilman Miss Lyla Gilman Earl and Countess of St Andrews Lord Downpatrick The Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor The Lady Amelia Windsor Mr Timothy and the Lady Helen Taylor Mr Columbus Taylor Mr Cassius Taylor Miss Estella Taylor Miss Eloise Taylor The Lord Nicholas Windsor Master Albert Windsor Master Leopold Windsor Princess Michael of Kent The Lord and Lady Frederick Windsor Mr Thomas and the Lady Gabriella Kingston Princess Alexandra, the Honourable Lady Ogilvy Mr and Mrs James Ogilvy Mr Alexander Ogilvy Mr and Mrs Timothy Vesterberg Miss Marina Ogilvy Mr Christian Mowatt Miss Zenouska Mowatt Catherine, Princess of Wales, Princess Charlotte of Wales and Prince George of Wales arrive at Westminster Abbey Catherine, Princess of Wales, Princess Charlotte of Wales and Prince George of Wales arrive at Westminster Abbey Holders of the Victoria Cross, the George Cross and the Orders of Chivalry Order of St John: Miss Nakkita Charag, Dr Ahmad Ma’ali, Professor Mark Compton Order of Australia: Professor Barbara Bain, Dr Lissant Mary Bolton, Professor Mark Dodgson Order of Canada: Ms Sandra Oh, Mr Mark Tewksbury, Mr Gregory Charles Order of New Zealand: The Hon Dame Silvia Cartwright, the Rt Hon Sir Donald McKinnon, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa The Order of Companions of Honour: Dame Marina Warner, Sir Paul Nurse, Sir Richard Eyre Knights Bachelor: The Lord Lingfield, Professor Sir Colin Berry, The Rt Hon Sir Gary Hickinbottom The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire: Mr Arun Kumar Batra, Dame Amelia Fawcett, Sir Christopher Greenwood The Royal Victorian Order: Mr Raymond Wheaton, Miss Shutica Patel, The Lord Sterling of Plaistow The Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George: Sir David Manning, Ms Andrea Rose, The Rt Hon the Baroness Ashton of Upholland The Order of Merit: Professor the Lord Darzi of Denham, Dame Ann Dowling, Mr Neil MacGregor The Most Honourable Order of the Bath: Major General Susan Ridge, Sir Patrick Vallance, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle: The Rt Hon Dame Elish Angiolini, The Rt Hon the Lord Patel, The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn The Most Noble Order of the Garter: The Rt Hon the Baroness Amos, The Most Hon the Marquess of Salisbury, The Rt Hon Baroness Manningham-Buller Cross of Valour (Australia): Mr Allan Sparkes Cross of Valour (Canada): First Officer Leslie Palmer New Zealand Cross: Ms Jacinda Amey Holders of The George Cross: Major (Ret’d) Peter Norton, Mr James Beaton, Mr Anthony Gledhill Victoria Cross (New Zealand): Mr Willie Apiata Victoria Cross (Australia): Cpl Mark Donaldson Holders of The Victoria Cross: CSgt Johnson Beharry, Mr Keith Payne Representatives of faith communities Mrs Marie van der Zyl, President, Board of Deputies of British Jews Dr Shirin Fozdar-Faroudi, Representative of the Bahaʼi Community Mr Nemu Chandaria, Representative of the Jain Community Mr Malcom Deboo, President of the Zoroastrian Community The Venerable Bogoda Seelawimala, Representative of the Buddhist Community The Lord Singh of Wimbledon, Representative of the Sikh Community Mr Rajnish Kashyap, General Secretary, Hindu Council UK Mrs Aliya Azam, Interfaith Co-ordinator, Al-Khoei Foundation Shaykh Dr Asim Yusuf, Muslim Scholar Chief Rabbi Ephraim Mirvis, Chief Rabbi of Great Britain and the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth Verger Representing the Churches of Wales: The Reverend Simon Walking, President, Free Church Council of Wales; The Most Reverend Andrew John, Archbishop of Wales; The Most Reverend Mark O’Toole, Archbishop of Cardiff Representing the Churches of Scotland: The Right Reverend Dr Iain Greenshields, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; The Most Reverend Leo Cushley, Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh; The Most Reverend Mark Strange, Primus, Scottish Episcopal Church Representing the Churches of Northern Ireland: The Reverend David Nixon, President, Methodist Church in Ireland; The Reverend Ian Brown, Lead Minister, Martyrs Memorial Free Presbyterian Church; The Right Reverend Dr John Kirkpatrick, Moderator, The Presbyterian Church in Ireland; The Most Reverend Dr Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland; The Most Reverend John McDowell, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland and Metropolitan Representing the Churches in England: Pastor Agu Irukwu, Senior Pastor, Jesus House UK; Pastor Glyn Barrett, National Leader, Assemblies of God; The Reverend Canon Helen Cameron, Moderator, Free Churches Group; Ms Shermara Fletcher, Principal Officer for Pentecostal and Charismatic Relations, Churches Together in England; The Reverend Graham Thompson, President, Methodist Conference; His Eminence Archbishop Angaelos, The Coptic Church in Great Britain; His Eminence Cardinal Vincent Nichols, Archbishop of Westminster; His Eminence Archbishop Nikitas, Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain Serjeant of the Vestry, The Very Reverend Professor David Fergusson, Dean of the Thistle and of the Chapel Royal in Scotland The Reverend Canon Paul Wright, Sub-Dean of His Majesty’s Chapels Royal The Right Reverend and Right Honourable Dame Sarah Mullally, Bishop of London and Dean of His Majesty’s Chapels Royal The Right Reverend David Conner, Dean of Windsor The Right Reverend James Newcome, Clerk of the Closet The Right Reverend Dr John Inge, Lord High Almoner

  • Condition: In Excellent Condition
  • Options: Commemorative
  • Modification Description: King Charles III
  • Collections/ Bulk Lots: Queen Elizabeth II
  • Fineness: Unknown
  • Material: Unknown
  • Modified Item: Yes
  • Colour: Gold Silver
  • Year of Issue: 2022
  • Currency: Commerative
  • Features: Commemorative
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Variety: Olympic
  • Country of Origin: United States

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