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Vendedor: lasvegasormonaco ✉️ (3.783) 99.6%, Ubicación del artículo: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Realiza envíos a: WORLDWIDE, Número de artículo: 266882303519 Moneda de Plata Autógrafo Stephen Hawkings Ciencia Astronomía Estrellas Teoría Big Bang. 1995) Elaine Mason (m. 1995; div. [19] Hawking was born in Oxford into a family of physicians. In October 1959, at the age of 17, he began his university education at University College, Oxford, where he received a first-class BA degree in physics. Stephen Hawking A Brief History of Time Commemorative Coin One side of this Silver Plated Coin has an image of a galaxy in space with the words "ABriefer History on Time" with 2 stars The back has an image of the great man with his signature and the years of his life 1942 - 2018 The coin is 40mm in diameter, weighs about 1 oz and it comes in air-tight acrylic coin holder. in Excellent Condition . 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Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Stephen Hawking Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Page semi-protected From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Stephen Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA Black-and-white photograph of Hawking at NASA's StarChild Learning Center Hawking c. 1980 Born Stephen William Hawking 8 January 1942 Oxford, England Died 14 March 2018 (aged 76) Cambridge, England Resting place Westminster Abbey[16] Education University College, Oxford (BA)Trinity Hall, Cambridge (PhD) Known for See list Spouses Jane Wilde (m. 1965; div. 1995) Elaine Mason (m. 1995; div. 2007) Children 3, including Lucy Awards See list Scientific career Fields General relativityquantum gravity Institutions University of CambridgeCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPerimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics Thesis Properties of Expanding Universes (1966) Doctoral advisor Dennis W. Sciama[1] Other academic advisors Robert Berman[2] Doctoral students See list Website Signature Part of a series on Physical cosmology Big Bang · Universe Age of the universe Chronology of the universe Early universe Inflation · Nucleosynthesis Backgrounds Gravitational wave (GWB) Microwave (CMB) · Neutrino (CNB) Expansion · Future Hubble's law · Redshift Expansion of the universe FLRW metric · Friedmann equations Inhom*ogeneous cosmology Future of an expanding universe Ultimate fate of the universe Components · Structure Components Lambda-CDM model Dark energy · Dark matter Structure Shape of the universe Galaxy filament · Galaxy formation Large quasar group Large-scale structure Reionization · Structure formation Experiments Black Hole Initiative (BHI) BOOMERanG Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Dark Energy Survey Planck space observatory Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey ("2dF") Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Scientists AaronsonAlfvénAlpherCopernicusde SitterDickeEhlersEinsteinEllisFriedmannGalileoGamowGuthHawkingHubbleHuygensKeplerLemaîtreMatherNewtonPenrosePenziasRubinSchmidtSmootSuntzeffSunyaevTolmanWilsonZeldovich List of cosmologists Subject history Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation History of the Big Bang theory Timeline of cosmological theories Category Astronomy portal vte Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge.[6][17][18] Between 1979 and 2009, he was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, widely viewed as one of the most prestigious academic posts in the world.[19] Hawking was born in Oxford into a family of physicians. In October 1959, at the age of 17, he began his university education at University College, Oxford, where he received a first-class BA degree in physics. In October 1962, he began his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where, in March 1966, he obtained his PhD degree in applied mathematics and theoretical physics, specialising in general relativity and cosmology. In 1963, at age 21, Hawking was diagnosed with an early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease that gradually, over decades, paralysed him.[20][21] After the loss of his speech, he communicated through a speech-generating device initially through use of a handheld switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle.[22] Hawking's scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Initially, Hawking radiation was controversial. By the late 1970s and following the publication of further research, the discovery was widely accepted as a major breakthrough in theoretical physics. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.[23][24] Hawking achieved commercial success with several works of popular science in which he discussed his theories and cosmology in general. His book A Brief History of Time appeared on the Sunday Times bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He died in 2018 at the age of 76, having lived more than 50 years following his diagnosis of motor neurone disease. Early life Family Hawking was born on 8 January 1942[25][26] in Oxford to Frank and Isobel Eileen Hawking (née Walker).[27][28] Hawking's mother was born into a family of doctors in Glasgow, Scotland.[29][30] His wealthy paternal great-grandfather, from Yorkshire, over-extended himself buying farm land and then went bankrupt in the great agricultural depression during the early 20th century.[30] His paternal great-grandmother saved the family from financial ruin by opening a school in their home.[30] Despite their families' financial constraints, both parents attended the University of Oxford, where Frank read medicine and Isobel read Philosophy, Politics and Economics.[28] Isobel worked as a secretary for a medical research institute, and Frank was a medical researcher.[28][31] Hawking had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward Frank David (1955–2003).[32] In 1950, when Hawking's father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research, the family moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire.[33][34] In St Albans, the family was considered highly intelligent and somewhat eccentric;[33][35] meals were often spent with each person silently reading a book.[33] They lived a frugal existence in a large, cluttered, and poorly maintained house and travelled in a converted London taxicab.[36][37] During one of Hawking's father's frequent absences working in Africa,[38] the rest of the family spent four months in Mallorca visiting his mother's friend Beryl and her husband, the poet Robert Graves.[39] Primary and secondary school years Hawking began his schooling at the Byron House School in Highgate, London. He later blamed its "progressive methods" for his failure to learn to read while at the school.[40][33] In St Albans, the eight-year-old Hawking attended St Albans High School for Girls for a few months. At that time, younger boys could attend one of the houses.[39][41] Hawking attended two private (i.e. fee-paying) schools, first Radlett School[41] and from September 1952, St Albans School, Hertfordshire,[26][42] after passing the eleven-plus a year early.[43] The family placed a high value on education.[33] Hawking's father wanted his son to attend Westminster School, but the 13-year-old Hawking was ill on the day of the scholarship examination. His family could not afford the school fees without the financial aid of a scholarship, so Hawking remained at St Albans.[44][45] A positive consequence was that Hawking remained close to a group of friends with whom he enjoyed board games, the manufacture of fireworks, model aeroplanes and boats,[46] and long discussions about Christianity and extrasensory perception.[47] From 1958 on, with the help of the mathematics teacher Dikran Tahta, they built a computer from clock parts, an old telephone switchboard and other recycled components.[48][49] Although known at school as "Einstein", Hawking was not initially successful academically.[50] With time, he began to show considerable aptitude for scientific subjects and, inspired by Tahta, decided to read mathematics at university.[51][52][53] Hawking's father advised him to study medicine, concerned that there were few jobs for mathematics graduates.[54] He also wanted his son to attend University College, Oxford, his own alma mater. As it was not possible to read mathematics there at the time, Hawking decided to study physics and chemistry. Despite his headmaster's advice to wait until the next year, Hawking was awarded a scholarship after taking the examinations in March 1959.[55][56] Undergraduate years Hawking began his university education at University College, Oxford,[26] in October 1959 at the age of 17.[57] For the first eighteen months, he was bored and lonely – he found the academic work "ridiculously easy".[58][59] His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said, "It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it."[2] A change occurred during his second and third years when, according to Berman, Hawking made more of an effort "to be one of the boys". He developed into a popular, lively and witty college-member, interested in classical music and science fiction.[57] Part of the transformation resulted from his decision to join the college boat-club, the University College Boat Club, where he coxed a rowing-crew.[60][61] The rowing-coach at the time noted that Hawking cultivated a daredevil image, steering his crew on risky courses that led to damaged boats.[60][62] Hawking estimated that he studied about 1,000 hours during his three years at Oxford. These unimpressive study habits made sitting his finals a challenge, and he decided to answer only theoretical physics questions rather than those requiring factual knowledge. A first-class degree was a condition of acceptance for his planned graduate study in cosmology at the University of Cambridge.[63][64] Anxious, he slept poorly the night before the examinations, and the result was on the borderline between first- and second-class honours, making a viva (oral examination) with the Oxford examiners necessary.[64][65] Hawking was concerned that he was viewed as a lazy and difficult student. So, when asked at the viva to describe his plans, he said, "If you award me a First, I will go to Cambridge. If I receive a Second, I shall stay in Oxford, so I expect you will give me a First."[64][66] He was held in higher regard than he believed; as Berman commented, the examiners "were intelligent enough to realise they were talking to someone far cleverer than most of themselves".[64] After receiving a first-class BA degree in physics and completing a trip to Iran with a friend, he began his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in October 1962.[26][67][68] Post-graduate years Hawking's first year as a doctoral student was difficult. He was initially disappointed to find that he had been assigned Dennis William Sciama, one of the founders of modern cosmology, as a supervisor rather than the noted astronomer Fred Hoyle,[69][70] and he found his training in mathematics inadequate for work in general relativity and cosmology.[71] After being diagnosed with motor neurone disease, Hawking fell into a depression – though his doctors advised that he continue with his studies, he felt there was little point.[72] His disease progressed more slowly than doctors had predicted. Although Hawking had difficulty walking unsupported, and his speech was almost unintelligible, an initial diagnosis that he had only two years to live proved unfounded. With Sciama's encouragement, he returned to his work.[73][74] Hawking started developing a reputation for brilliance and brashness when he publicly challenged the work of Hoyle and his student Jayant Narlikar at a lecture in June 1964.[75][76] When Hawking began his doctoral studies, there was much debate in the physics community about the prevailing theories of the creation of the universe: the Big Bang and Steady State theories.[77] Inspired by Roger Penrose's theorem of a spacetime singularity in the centre of black holes, Hawking applied the same thinking to the entire universe; and, during 1965, he wrote his thesis on this topic.[78][79] Hawking's thesis[80] was approved in 1966.[80] There were other positive developments: Hawking received a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge;[81] he obtained his PhD degree in applied mathematics and theoretical physics, specialising in general relativity and cosmology, in March 1966;[82] and his essay "Singularities and the Geometry of Space–Time" shared top honours with one by Penrose to win that year's prestigious Adams Prize.[83][82] Career 1966–1975 In his work, and in collaboration with Penrose, Hawking extended the singularity theorem concepts first explored in his doctoral thesis. This included not only the existence of singularities but also the theory that the universe might have started as a singularity. Their joint essay was the runner-up in the 1968 Gravity Research Foundation competition.[84][85] In 1970, they published a proof that if the universe obeys the general theory of relativity and fits any of the models of physical cosmology developed by Alexander Friedmann, then it must have begun as a singularity.[86][87][88] In 1969, Hawking accepted a specially created Fellowship for Distinction in Science to remain at Caius.[89] In 1970, Hawking postulated what became known as the second law of black hole dynamics, that the event horizon of a black hole can never get smaller.[90] With James M. Bardeen and Brandon Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics.[91] To Hawking's irritation, Jacob Bekenstein, a graduate student of John Wheeler, went further—and ultimately correctly—to apply thermodynamic concepts literally.[92][93] In the early 1970s, Hawking's work with Carter, Werner Israel, and David C. Robinson strongly supported Wheeler's no-hair theorem, one that states that no matter what the original material from which a black hole is created, it can be completely described by the properties of mass, electrical charge and rotation.[94][95] His essay titled "Black Holes" won the Gravity Research Foundation Award in January 1971.[96] Hawking's first book, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time, written with George Ellis, was published in 1973.[97] Beginning in 1973, Hawking moved into the study of quantum gravity and quantum mechanics.[98][97] His work in this area was spurred by a visit to Moscow and discussions with Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich and Alexei Starobinsky, whose work showed that according to the uncertainty principle, rotating black holes emit particles.[99] To Hawking's annoyance, his much-checked calculations produced findings that contradicted his second law, which claimed black holes could never get smaller,[100] and supported Bekenstein's reasoning about their entropy.[99][101] His results, which Hawking presented from 1974, showed that black holes emit radiation, known today as Hawking radiation, which may continue until they exhaust their energy and evaporate.[102][103][104] Initially, Hawking radiation was controversial. By the late 1970s and following the publication of further research, the discovery was widely accepted as a significant breakthrough in theoretical physics.[105][106][107] Hawking was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1974, a few weeks after the announcement of Hawking radiation. At the time, he was one of the youngest scientists to become a Fellow.[108][109] Hawking was appointed to the Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Visiting Professorship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1974. He worked with a friend on the faculty, Kip Thorne,[110][6] and engaged him in a scientific wager about whether the X-ray source Cygnus X-1 was a black hole. The wager was an "insurance policy" against the proposition that black holes did not exist.[111] Hawking acknowledged that he had lost the bet in 1990, a bet that was the first of several he was to make with Thorne and others.[112] Hawking had maintained ties to Caltech, spending a month there almost every year since this first visit.[113] 1975–1990 Hawking returned to Cambridge in 1975 to a more academically senior post, as reader in gravitational physics. The mid-to-late 1970s were a period of growing public interest in black holes and the physicists who were studying them. Hawking was regularly interviewed for print and television.[114][115] He also received increasing academic recognition of his work.[116] In 1975, he was awarded both the Eddington Medal and the Pius XI Gold Medal, and in 1976 the Dannie Heineman Prize, the Maxwell Medal and Prize and the Hughes Medal.[117][118] He was appointed a professor with a chair in gravitational physics in 1977.[119] The following year he received the Albert Einstein Medal and an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford.[120][116] In 1979, Hawking was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.[116][121] His inaugural lecture in this role was titled: "Is the End in Sight for Theoretical Physics?" and proposed N = 8 supergravity as the leading theory to solve many of the outstanding problems physicists were studying.[122] His promotion coincided with a health-crisis which led to his accepting, albeit reluctantly, some nursing services at home.[123] At the same time, he was also making a transition in his approach to physics, becoming more intuitive and speculative rather than insisting on mathematical proofs. "I would rather be right than rigorous", he told Kip Thorne.[124] In 1981, he proposed that information in a black hole is irretrievably lost when a black hole evaporates. This information paradox violates the fundamental tenet of quantum mechanics, and led to years of debate, including "the Black Hole War" with Leonard Susskind and Gerard 't Hooft.[125][126] Hawking at an ALS convention in San Francisco in the 1980s Cosmological inflation – a theory proposing that following the Big Bang, the universe initially expanded incredibly rapidly before settling down to a slower expansion – was proposed by Alan Guth and also developed by Andrei Linde.[127] Following a conference in Moscow in October 1981, Hawking and Gary Gibbons[6] organised a three-week Nuffield Workshop in the summer of 1982 on "The Very Early Universe" at Cambridge University, a workshop that focused mainly on inflation theory.[128][129][130] Hawking also began a new line of quantum-theory research into the origin of the universe. In 1981 at a Vatican conference, he presented work suggesting that there might be no boundary – or beginning or ending – to the universe.[131][132] Hawking subsequently developed the research in collaboration with Jim Hartle,[6] and in 1983 they published a model, known as the Hartle–Hawking state. It proposed that prior to the Planck epoch, the universe had no boundary in space-time; before the Big Bang, time did not exist and the concept of the beginning of the universe is meaningless.[133] The initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models was replaced with a region akin to the North Pole. One cannot travel north of the North Pole, but there is no boundary there – it is simply the point where all north-running lines meet and end.[134][135] Initially, the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed universe, which had implications about the existence of God. As Hawking explained, "If the universe has no boundaries but is self-contained... then God would not have had any freedom to choose how the universe began."[136] Hawking did not rule out the existence of a Creator, asking in A Brief History of Time "Is the unified theory so compelling that it brings about its own existence?",[137] also stating "If we discover a complete theory, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason – for then we should know the mind of God";[138] in his early work, Hawking spoke of God in a metaphorical sense. In the same book he suggested that the existence of God was not necessary to explain the origin of the universe. Later discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the existence of God was also compatible with an open universe.[139] Further work by Hawking in the area of arrows of time led to the 1985 publication of a paper theorising that if the no-boundary proposition were correct, then when the universe stopped expanding and eventually collapsed, time would run backwards.[140] A paper by Don Page and independent calculations by Raymond Laflamme led Hawking to withdraw this concept.[141] Honours continued to be awarded: in 1981 he was awarded the American Franklin Medal,[142] and in the 1982 New Year Honours appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE).[143][144][145] These awards did not significantly change Hawking's financial status, and motivated by the need to finance his children's education and home-expenses, he decided in 1982 to write a popular book about the universe that would be accessible to the general public.[146][147] Instead of publishing with an academic press, he signed a contract with Bantam Books, a mass-market publisher, and received a large advance for his book.[148][149] A first draft of the book, called A Brief History of Time, was completed in 1984.[150] One of the first messages Hawking produced with his speech-generating device was a request for his assistant to help him finish writing A Brief History of Time.[151] Peter Guzzardi, his editor at Bantam, pushed him to explain his ideas clearly in non-technical language, a process that required many revisions from an increasingly irritated Hawking.[152] The book was published in April 1988 in the US and in June in the UK, and it proved to be an extraordinary success, rising quickly to the top of best-seller lists in both countries and remaining there for months.[153][154][155] The book was translated into many languages,[156] and as of 2009, has sold an estimated 9 million copies.[155] Media attention was intense,[156] and a Newsweek magazine-cover and a television special both described him as "Master of the Universe".[157] Success led to significant financial rewards, but also the challenges of celebrity status.[158] Hawking travelled extensively to promote his work, and enjoyed partying and dancing into the small hours.[156] A difficulty refusing the invitations and visitors left him limited time for work and his students.[159] Some colleagues were resentful of the attention Hawking received, feeling it was due to his disability.[160][161] He received further academic recognition, including five more honorary degrees,[157] the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1985),[162] the Paul Dirac Medal (1987)[157] and, jointly with Penrose, the prestigious Wolf Prize (1988).[163] In the 1989 Birthday Honours, he was appointed a Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH).[159][164] He reportedly declined a knighthood in the late 1990s in objection to the UK's science funding policy.[165][166] 1990–2000 Hawking outside, in his wheelchair, talking to David Gross and Edward Witten Hawking with string theorists David Gross and Edward Witten at the Strings Conference in January 2001, TIFR, India Hawking pursued his work in physics: in 1993 he co-edited a book on Euclidean quantum gravity with Gary Gibbons and published a collected edition of his own articles on black holes and the Big Bang.[167] In 1994, at Cambridge's Newton Institute, Hawking and Penrose delivered a series of six lectures that were published in 1996 as "The Nature of Space and Time".[168] In 1997, he conceded a 1991 public scientific wager made with Kip Thorne and John Preskill of Caltech. Hawking had bet that Penrose's proposal of a "cosmic censorship conjecture" – that there could be no "naked singularities" unclothed within a horizon – was correct.[169] After discovering his concession might have been premature, a new and more refined wager was made. This one specified that such singularities would occur without extra conditions.[170] The same year, Thorne, Hawking and Preskill made another bet, this time concerning the black hole information paradox.[171][172] Thorne and Hawking argued that since general relativity made it impossible for black holes to radiate and lose information, the mass-energy and information carried by Hawking radiation must be "new", and not from inside the black hole event horizon. Since this contradicted the quantum mechanics of microcausality, quantum mechanics theory would need to be rewritten. Preskill argued the opposite, that since quantum mechanics suggests that the information emitted by a black hole relates to information that fell in at an earlier time, the concept of black holes given by general relativity must be modified in some way.[173] Hawking also maintained his public profile, including bringing science to a wider audience. A film version of A Brief History of Time, directed by Errol Morris and produced by Steven Spielberg, premiered in 1992. Hawking had wanted the film to be scientific rather than biographical, but he was persuaded otherwise. The film, while a critical success, was not widely released.[174] A popular-level collection of essays, interviews, and talks titled Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays was published in 1993,[175] and a six-part television series Stephen Hawking's Universe and a companion book appeared in 1997. As Hawking insisted, this time the focus was entirely on science.[176][177] 2000–2018 Stephen Hawking sitting in his wheelchair inside Hawking at the Bibliothèque nationale de France to inaugurate the Laboratory of Astronomy and Particles in Paris, and the French release of his work God Created the Integers, 5 May 2006 Hawking continued his writings for a popular audience, publishing The Universe in a Nutshell in 2001,[178] and A Briefer History of Time, which he wrote in 2005 with Leonard Mlodinow to update his earlier works with the aim of making them accessible to a wider audience, and God Created the Integers, which appeared in 2006.[179] Along with Thomas Hertog at CERN and Jim Hartle, from 2006 on Hawking developed a theory of top-down cosmology, which says that the universe had not one unique initial state but many different ones, and therefore that it is inappropriate to formulate a theory that predicts the universe's current configuration from one particular initial state.[180] Top-down cosmology posits that the present "selects" the past from a superposition of many possible histories. In doing so, the theory suggests a possible resolution of the fine-tuning question.[181][182] Hawking continued to travel widely, including trips to Chile, Easter Island, South Africa, Spain (to receive the Fonseca Prize in 2008),[183][184] Canada,[185] and numerous trips to the United States.[186] For practical reasons related to his disability, Hawking increasingly travelled by private jet, and by 2011 that had become his only mode of international travel.[187] By 2003, consensus among physicists was growing that Hawking was wrong about the loss of information in a black hole.[188] In a 2004 lecture in Dublin, he conceded his 1997 bet with Preskill, but described his own, somewhat controversial solution to the information paradox problem, involving the possibility that black holes have more than one topology.[189][173] In the 2005 paper he published on the subject, he argued that the information paradox was explained by examining all the alternative histories of universes, with the information loss in those with black holes being cancelled out by those without such loss.[172][190] In January 2014, he called the alleged loss of information in black holes his "biggest blunder".[191] As part of another longstanding scientific dispute, Hawking had emphatically argued, and bet, that the Higgs boson would never be found.[192] The particle was proposed to exist as part of the Higgs field theory by Peter Higgs in 1964. Hawking and Higgs engaged in a heated and public debate over the matter in 2002 and again in 2008, with Higgs criticising Hawking's work and complaining that Hawking's "celebrity status gives him instant credibility that others do not have."[193] The particle was discovered in July 2012 at CERN following construction of the Large Hadron Collider. Hawking quickly conceded that he had lost his bet[194][195] and said that Higgs should win the Nobel Prize for Physics,[196] which he did in 2013.[197] Hawking holding a public lecture at the Stockholm Waterfront congress centre, 24 August 2015 In 2007, Hawking and his daughter Lucy published George's Secret Key to the Universe, a children's book designed to explain theoretical physics in an accessible fashion and featuring characters similar to those in the Hawking family.[198] The book was followed by sequels in 2009, 2011, 2014 and 2016.[199] In 2002, following a UK-wide vote, the BBC included Hawking in their list of the 100 Greatest Britons.[200] He was awarded the Copley Medal from the Royal Society (2006),[201] the Presidential Medal of Freedom, which is America's highest civilian honour (2009),[202] and the Russian Special Fundamental Physics Prize (2013).[203] Several buildings have been named after him, including the Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador, El Salvador,[204] the Stephen Hawking Building in Cambridge,[205] and the Stephen Hawking Centre at the Perimeter Institute in Canada.[206] Appropriately, given Hawking's association with time, he unveiled the mechanical "Chronophage" (or time-eating) Corpus Clock at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge in September 2008.[207][208] During his career, Hawking supervised 39 successful PhD students.[1] One doctoral student did not successfully complete the PhD.[1][better source needed] As required by Cambridge University policy, Hawking retired as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 2009.[121][209] Despite suggestions that he might leave the United Kingdom as a protest against public funding cuts to basic scientific research,[210] Hawking worked as director of research at the Cambridge University Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.[211] On 28 June 2009, as a tongue-in-cheek test of his 1992 conjecture that travel into the past is effectively impossible, Hawking held a party open to all, complete with hors d'oeuvres and iced champagne, but publicised the party only after it was over so that only time-travellers would know to attend; as expected, nobody showed up to the party.[212] On 20 July 2015, Hawking helped launch Breakthrough Initiatives, an effort to search for extraterrestrial life.[213] Hawking created Stephen Hawking: Expedition New Earth, a documentary on space colonisation, as a 2017 episode of Tomorrow's World.[214][215] In August 2015, Hawking said that not all information is lost when something enters a black hole and there might be a possibility to retrieve information from a black hole according to his theory.[216] In July 2017, Hawking was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Imperial College London.[217] Hawking's final paper – A smooth exit from eternal inflation? – was posthumously published in the Journal of High Energy Physics on 27 April 2018.[218][219] Personal life Marriages Hawking met his future wife, Jane Wilde, at a party in 1962. The following year, Hawking was diagnosed with motor neurone disease. In October 1964, the couple became engaged to marry, aware of the potential challenges that lay ahead due to Hawking's shortened life expectancy and physical limitations.[120][220] Hawking later said that the engagement gave him "something to live for".[221] The two were married on 14 July 1965 in their shared hometown of St Albans.[81] The couple resided in Cambridge, within Hawking's walking distance to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP). During their first years of marriage, Jane lived in London during the week as she completed her degree at Westfield College. They travelled to the United States several times for conferences and physics-related visits. Jane began a PhD programme through Westfield College in medieval Spanish poetry (completed in 1981). The couple had three children: Robert, born May 1967,[222][223] Lucy, born November 1970,[224] and Timothy, born April 1979.[116] Hawking rarely discussed his illness and physical challenges—even, in a precedent set during their courtship, with Jane.[225] His disabilities meant that the responsibilities of home and family rested firmly on his wife's increasingly overwhelmed shoulders, leaving him more time to think about physics.[226] Upon his appointment in 1974 to a year-long position at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, Jane proposed that a graduate or post-doctoral student live with them and help with his care. Hawking accepted, and Bernard Carr travelled with them as the first of many students who fulfilled this role.[227][228] The family spent a generally happy and stimulating year in Pasadena.[229] Hawking returned to Cambridge in 1975 to a new home and a new job, as reader. Don Page, with whom Hawking had begun a close friendship at Caltech, arrived to work as the live-in graduate student assistant. With Page's help and that of a secretary, Jane's responsibilities were reduced so she could return to her doctoral thesis and her new interest in singing.[230] Around December 1977, Jane met organist Jonathan Hellyer Jones when singing in a church choir. Hellyer Jones became close to the Hawking family and, by the mid-1980s, he and Jane had developed romantic feelings for each other.[119][231][232] According to Jane, her husband was accepting of the situation, stating "he would not object so long as I continued to love him".[119][233][234] Jane and Hellyer Jones were determined not to break up the family, and their relationship remained platonic for a long period.[235] By the 1980s, Hawking's marriage had been strained for many years. Jane felt overwhelmed by the intrusion into their family life of the required nurses and assistants.[236] The impact of his celebrity status was challenging for colleagues and family members, while the prospect of living up to a worldwide fairytale image was daunting for the couple.[237][181] Hawking's views of religion also contrasted with her strong Christian faith and resulted in tension.[181][238][239] After a tracheotomy in 1985, Hawking required a full-time nurse and nursing care was split across three shifts daily. In the late 1980s, Hawking grew close to one of his nurses, Elaine Mason, to the dismay of some colleagues, caregivers, and family members, who were disturbed by her strength of personality and protectiveness.[240] In February 1990, Hawking told Jane that he was leaving her for Mason[241] and departed the family home.[143] After his divorce from Jane in 1995, Hawking married Mason in September,[143][242] declaring, "It's wonderful – I have married the woman I love."[243] In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars, describing her marriage to Hawking and its breakdown. Its revelations caused a sensation in the media but, as was his usual practice regarding his personal life, Hawking made no public comment except to say that he did not read biographies about himself.[244] After his second marriage, Hawking's family felt excluded and marginalised from his life.[239] For a period of about five years in the early 2000s, his family and staff became increasingly worried that he was being physically abused.[245] Police investigations took place, but were closed as Hawking refused to make a complaint.[246] In 2006, Hawking and Mason quietly divorced,[247][248] and Hawking resumed closer relationships with Jane, his children, and his grandchildren.[181][248] Reflecting on this happier period, a revised version of Jane's book, re-titled Travelling to Infinity: My Life with Stephen, appeared in 2007,[246] and was made into a film, The Theory of Everything, in 2014.[249] Disability Hawking had a rare early-onset, slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease (MND; also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig's disease), a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neurones in the brain and spinal cord, which gradually paralysed him over decades.[21] Hawking had experienced increasing clumsiness during his final year at Oxford, including a fall on some stairs and difficulties when rowing.[250][251] The problems worsened, and his speech became slightly slurred. His family noticed the changes when he returned home for Christmas, and medical investigations were begun.[252][253] The MND diagnosis came when Hawking was 21, in 1963. At the time, doctors gave him a life expectancy of two years.[254][255] In the late 1960s, Hawking's physical abilities declined: he began to use crutches and could no longer give lectures regularly.[256] As he slowly lost the ability to write, he developed compensatory visual methods, including seeing equations in terms of geometry.[257][258] The physicist Werner Israel later compared the achievements to Mozart composing an entire symphony in his head.[259][260] Hawking was fiercely independent and unwilling to accept help or make concessions for his disabilities. He preferred to be regarded as "a scientist first, popular science writer second, and, in all the ways that matter, a normal human being with the same desires, drives, dreams, and ambitions as the next person".[261] His wife Jane later noted: "Some people would call it determination, some obstinacy. I've called it both at one time or another."[262] He required much persuasion to accept the use of a wheelchair at the end of the 1960s,[263] but ultimately became notorious for the wildness of his wheelchair driving.[264] Hawking was a popular and witty colleague, but his illness, as well as his reputation for brashness, distanced him from some.[262] When Hawking first began using a wheelchair he was using standard motorised models. The earliest surviving example of these chairs was made by BEC Mobility and sold by Christie's in November 2018 for £296,750.[265] Hawking continued to use this type of chair until the early 1990s, at which time his ability to use his hands to drive a wheelchair deteriorated. Hawking used a variety of different chairs from that time, including a DragonMobility Dragon elevating powerchair from 2007, as shown in the April 2008 photo of Hawking attending NASA's 50th anniversary;[266] a Permobil C350 from 2014; and then a Permobil F3 from 2016.[267] Hawking's speech deteriorated, and by the late 1970s he could be understood by only his family and closest friends. To communicate with others, someone who knew him well would interpret his speech into intelligible speech.[268] Spurred by a dispute with the university over who would pay for the ramp needed for him to enter his workplace, Hawking and his wife campaigned for improved access and support for those with disabilities in Cambridge,[269][270] including adapted student housing at the university.[271] In general, Hawking had ambivalent feelings about his role as a disability rights champion: while wanting to help others, he also sought to detach himself from his illness and its challenges.[272] His lack of engagement in this area led to some criticism.[273] During a visit to CERN on the border of France and Switzerland in mid-1985, Hawking contracted pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening; he was so ill that Jane was asked if life support should be terminated. She refused, but the consequence was a tracheotomy, which required round-the-clock nursing care and caused the loss of what remained of his speech.[274][275] The National Health Service was ready to pay for a nursing home, but Jane was determined that he would live at home. The cost of the care was funded by an American foundation.[276][277] Nurses were hired for the three shifts required to provide the round-the-clock support he required. One of those employed was Elaine Mason, who was to become Hawking's second wife.[278] For his communication, Hawking initially raised his eyebrows to choose letters on a spelling card,[279] but in 1986 he received a computer program called the "Equalizer" from Walter Woltosz, CEO of Words Plus, who had developed an earlier version of the software to help his mother-in-law, who also had ALS and had lost her ability to speak and write.[280] In a method he used for the rest of his life, Hawking could now simply press a switch to select phrases, words or letters from a bank of about 2,500–3,000 that were scanned.[281][282] The program was originally run on a desktop computer. Elaine Mason's husband, David, a computer engineer, adapted a small computer and attached it to his wheelchair.[283] Released from the need to use somebody to interpret his speech, Hawking commented that "I can communicate better now than before I lost my voice."[284] The voice he used had an American accent and is no longer produced.[285][286] Despite the later availability of other voices, Hawking retained this original voice, saying that he preferred it and identified with it.[287] Originally, Hawking activated a switch using his hand and could produce up to 15 words per minute.[151] Lectures were prepared in advance and were sent to the speech synthesiser in short sections to be delivered.[285] Hawking gradually lost the use of his hand, and in 2005 he began to control his communication device with movements of his cheek muscles,[288][289][290] with a rate of about one word per minute.[289] With this decline there was a risk of him developing locked-in syndrome, so Hawking collaborated with Intel Corporation researchers on systems that could translate his brain patterns or facial expressions into switch activations. After several prototypes that did not perform as planned, they settled on an adaptive word predictor made by the London-based startup SwiftKey, which used a system similar to his original technology. Hawking had an easier time adapting to the new system, which was further developed after inputting large amounts of Hawking's papers and other written materials and uses predictive software similar to other smartphone keyboards.[181][280][290][291] By 2009, he could no longer drive his wheelchair independently, but the same people who created his new typing mechanics were working on a method to drive his chair using movements made by his chin. This proved difficult, since Hawking could not move his neck, and trials showed that while he could indeed drive the chair, the movement was sporadic and jumpy.[280][292] Near the end of his life, Hawking experienced increased breathing difficulties, often resulting in his requiring the usage of a ventilator, and being regularly hospitalised.[181] Disability outreach Starting in the 1990s, Hawking accepted the mantle of role model for disabled people, lecturing and participating in fundraising activities.[293] At the turn of the century, he and eleven other humanitarians signed the Charter for the Third Millennium on Disability, which called on governments to prevent disability and protect the rights of disabled people.[294][295] In 1999, Hawking was awarded the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society.[296] In August 2012, Hawking narrated the "Enlightenment" segment of the 2012 Summer Paralympics opening ceremony in London.[297] In 2013, the biographical documentary film Hawking, in which Hawking himself is featured, was released.[298] In September 2013, he expressed support for the legalisation of assisted suicide for the terminally ill.[299] In August 2014, Hawking accepted the Ice Bucket Challenge to promote ALS/MND awareness and raise contributions for research. As he had pneumonia in 2013, he was advised not to have ice poured over him, but his children volunteered to accept the challenge on his behalf.[300] Plans for a trip to space Hawking, without his wheelchair, floating weightless in the air inside a plane Hawking taking a zero-gravity flight in a reduced-gravity aircraft, April 2007 In late 2006, Hawking revealed in a BBC interview that one of his greatest unfulfilled desires was to travel to space;[301] on hearing this, Richard Branson offered a free flight into space with Virgin Galactic, which Hawking immediately accepted. Besides personal ambition, he was motivated by the desire to increase public interest in spaceflight and to show the potential of people with disabilities.[302] On 26 April 2007, Hawking flew aboard a specially-modified Boeing 727–200 jet operated by Zero-G Corp off the coast of Florida to experience weightlessness.[303] Fears that the manoeuvres would cause him undue discomfort proved incorrect, and the flight was extended to eight parabolic arcs.[301] It was described as a successful test to see if he could withstand the g-forces involved in space flight.[304] At the time, the date of Hawking's trip to space was projected to be as early as 2009, but commercial flights to space did not commence before his death.[305] Death Hawking died at his home in Cambridge on 14 March 2018, at the age of 76.[306][307][308] His family stated that he "died peacefully".[309][310] He was eulogised by figures in science, entertainment, politics, and other areas.[311][312][313][314] The Gonville and Caius College flag flew at half-mast and a book of condolences was signed by students and visitors.[315][316][317] A tribute was made to Hawking in the closing speech by IPC President Andrew Parsons at the closing ceremony of the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea.[318] His private funeral took place on 31 March 2018,[319] at Great St Mary's Church, Cambridge.[319][320] Guests at the funeral included The Theory of Everything actors Eddie Redmayne and Felicity Jones, Queen guitarist and astrophysicist Brian May, and model Lily Cole.[321][322] In addition, actor Benedict Cumberbatch, who played Stephen Hawking in Hawking, astronaut Tim Peake, Astronomer Royal Martin Rees and physicist Kip Thorne provided readings at the service.[323] Although Hawking was an atheist, the funeral took place with a traditional Anglican service.[324][325] Following the cremation, a service of thanksgiving was held at Westminster Abbey on 15 June 2018, after which his ashes were interred in the Abbey's nave, between the graves of Sir Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin.[16][321][326][327] Stephen Hawking's memorial stone in Westminster Abbey Inscribed on his memorial stone are the words "Here lies what was mortal of Stephen Hawking 1942–2018" and his most famed equation.[328] He directed, at least fifteen years before his death, that the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy equation be his epitaph.[329][330][note 1] In June 2018, it was announced that Hawking's words, set to music by Greek composer Vangelis, would be beamed into space from a European space agency satellite dish in Spain with the aim of reaching the nearest black hole, 1A 0620-00.[335] Hawking's final broadcast interview, about the detection of gravitational waves resulting from the collision of two neutron stars, occurred in October 2017.[336] His final words to the world appeared posthumously, in April 2018, in the form of a Smithsonian TV Channel documentary entitled, Leaving Earth: Or How to Colonize a Planet.[337][338] One of his final research studies, entitled A smooth exit from eternal inflation?, about the origin of the universe, was published in the Journal of High Energy Physics in May 2018.[339][218][340] Later, in October 2018, another of his final research studies, entitled Black Hole Entropy and Soft Hair,[341] was published, and dealt with the "mystery of what happens to the information held by objects once they disappear into a black hole".[342][343] Also in October 2018, Hawking's last book, Brief Answers to the Big Questions, a popular science book presenting his final comments on the most important questions facing humankind, was published.[344][345][346] On 8 November 2018, an auction of 22 personal possessions of Stephen Hawking, including his doctoral thesis ("Properties of Expanding Universes", PhD thesis, Cambridge University, 1965) and wheelchair, took place, and fetched about £1.8 m.[347][348] Proceeds from the auction sale of the wheelchair went to two charities, the Motor Neurone Disease Association and the Stephen Hawking Foundation;[349] proceeds from Hawking's other items went to his estate.[348] In March 2019, it was announced that the Royal Mint would issue a commemorative 50p coin, only available as a commemorative edition,[350] in honour of Hawking.[351] The same month, Hawking's nurse, Patricia Dowdy, was struck off the nursing register for "failures over his care and financial misconduct."[352] In May 2021 it was announced that an Acceptance-in-Lieu agreement between HMRC, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Cambridge University Library, Science Museum Group, and the Hawking Estate, would see around 10,000 pages of Hawking's scientific and other papers remain in Cambridge, while objects including his wheelchairs, speech synthesisers, and personal memorabilia from his former Cambridge office would be housed at the Science Museum.[353] In February 2022 the "Stephen Hawking at Work" display opened at the Science Museum, London as the start of a two-year nationwide tour.[354] Personal views Philosophy is unnecessary At Google's Zeitgeist Conference in 2011, Stephen Hawking said that "philosophy is dead". He believed that philosophers "have not kept up with modern developments in science", "have not taken science sufficiently seriously and so Philosophy is no longer relevant to knowledge claims", "their art is dead" and that scientists "have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge". He said that philosophical problems can be answered by science, particularly new scientific theories which "lead us to a new and very different picture of the universe and our place in it".[355] His view was both praised and criticized.[356] Future of humanity Photograph of Barack Obama talking to Stephen Hawking in the White House President Barack Obama talks with Hawking in the White House before a ceremony presenting him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom on 12 August 2009. In 2006, Hawking posed an open question on the Internet: "In a world that is in chaos politically, socially and environmentally, how can the human race sustain another 100 years?", later clarifying: "I don't know the answer. That is why I asked the question, to get people to think about it, and to be aware of the dangers we now face."[357] Hawking expressed concern that life on Earth is at risk from a sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, global warming, or other dangers humans have not yet thought of.[302][358] Hawking stated: "I regard it as almost inevitable that either a nuclear confrontation or environmental catastrophe will cripple the Earth at some point in the next 1,000 years", and considered an "asteroid collision" to be the biggest threat to the planet.[344] Such a planet-wide disaster need not result in human extinction if the human race were to be able to colonise additional planets before the disaster.[358] Hawking viewed spaceflight and the colonisation of space as necessary for the future of humanity.[302][359] Hawking stated that, given the vastness of the universe, aliens likely exist, but that contact with them should be avoided.[360][361] He warned that aliens might pillage Earth for resources. In 2010 he said, "If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans."[361] Hawking warned that superintelligent artificial intelligence could be pivotal in steering humanity's fate, stating that "the potential benefits are huge... Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history. It might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks."[362][363] He feared that "an extremely intelligent future AI will probably develop a drive to survive and acquire more resources as a step toward accomplishing whatever goal it has", and that "The real risk with AI isn't malice but competence. A super-intelligent AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren't aligned with ours, we're in trouble".[364] He also considered that the enormous wealth generated by machines needs to be redistributed to prevent exacerbated economic inequality.[364] Hawking was concerned about the future emergence of a race of "superhumans" that would be able to design their own evolution[344] and, as well, argued that computer viruses in today's world should be considered a new form of life, stating that "maybe it says something about human nature, that the only form of life we have created so far is purely destructive. Talk about creating life in our own image."[365] Religion and atheism Hawking was an atheist.[366][367] In an interview published in The Guardian, Hawking regarded "the brain as a computer which will stop working when its components fail", and the concept of an afterlife as a "fairy story for people afraid of the dark".[307][138] In 2011, narrating the first episode of the American television series Curiosity on the Discovery Channel, Hawking declared: We are each free to believe what we want and it is my view that the simplest explanation is there is no God. No one created the universe and no one directs our fate. This leads me to a profound realisation. There is probably no heaven, and no afterlife either. We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that, I am extremely grateful.[368][369] Hawking's association with atheism and freethinking was in evidence from his university years onwards, when he had been a member of Oxford University's humanist group. He was later scheduled to appear as the keynote speaker at a 2017 Humanists UK conference.[370] In an interview with El Mundo, he said: Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe. But now science offers a more convincing explanation. What I meant by 'we would know the mind of God' is, we would know everything that God would know, if there were a God, which there isn't. I'm an atheist.[366] In addition, Hawking stated: If you like, you can call the laws of science 'God', but it wouldn't be a personal God that you would meet and put questions to.[344] Politics Hawking was a longstanding Labour Party supporter.[371][372] He recorded a tribute for the 2000 Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore,[373] called the 2003 invasion of Iraq a "war crime",[372][374] campaigned for nuclear disarmament,[371][372] and supported stem cell research,[372][375] universal health care,[376] and action to prevent climate change.[377] In August 2014, Hawking was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian expressing their hope that Scotland would vote to remain part of the United Kingdom in September's referendum on that issue.[378] Hawking believed a United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union (Brexit) would damage the UK's contribution to science as modern research needs international collaboration, and that free movement of people in Europe encourages the spread of ideas.[379] Hawking said to Theresa May, "I deal with tough mathematical questions every day, but please don't ask me to help with Brexit."[380] Hawking was disappointed by Brexit and warned against envy and isolationism.[381] Hawking was greatly concerned over health care, and maintained that without the UK National Health Service, he could not have survived into his 70s.[382] Hawking especially feared privatisation. He stated, "The more profit is extracted from the system, the more private monopolies grow and the more expensive healthcare becomes. The NHS must be preserved from commercial interests and protected from those who want to privatise it."[383] Hawking blamed the Conservatives for cutting funding to the NHS, weakening it by privatisation, lowering staff morale through holding pay back and reducing social care.[384] Hawking accused Jeremy Hunt of cherry picking evidence which Hawking maintained debased science.[382] Hawking also stated, "There is overwhelming evidence that NHS funding and the numbers of doctors and nurses are inadequate, and it is getting worse."[385] In June 2017, Hawking endorsed the Labour Party in the 2017 UK general election, citing the Conservatives' proposed cuts to the NHS. But he was also critical of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, expressing scepticism over whether the party could win a general election under him.[386] Hawking feared Donald Trump's policies on global warming could endanger the planet and make global warming irreversible. He said, "Climate change is one of the great dangers we face, and it's one we can prevent if we act now. By denying the evidence for climate change, and pulling out of the Paris Agreement, Donald Trump will cause avoidable environmental damage to our beautiful planet, endangering the natural world, for us and our children."[387] Hawking further stated that this could lead Earth "to become like Venus, with a temperature of two hundred and fifty degrees, and raining sulphuric acid".[388] Hawking was also a supporter of a universal basic income.[389] He was critical of the Israeli government's position on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, stating that their policy "is likely to lead to disaster."[390] Appearances in popular media Further information: Stephen Hawking in popular culture Hawking in Monty Python's "Galaxy Song" video at the comedy troupe's 2014 reunion show, Monty Python Live (Mostly) In 1988, Hawking, Arthur C. Clarke and Carl Sagan were interviewed in God, the Universe and Everything Else. They discussed the Big Bang theory, God and the possibility of extraterrestrial life.[391] At the release party for the home video version of the A Brief History of Time, Leonard Nimoy, who had played Spock on Star Trek, learned that Hawking was interested in appearing on the show. Nimoy made the necessary contact, and Hawking played a holographic simulation of himself in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in 1993.[392][393] The same year, his synthesiser voice was recorded for the Pink Floyd song "Keep Talking",[394][175] and in 1999 for an appearance on The Simpsons.[395] Hawking appeared in documentaries titled The Real Stephen Hawking (2001),[295] Stephen Hawking: Profile (2002)[396] and Hawking (2013), and the documentary series Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe (2008).[397] Hawking also guest-starred in Futurama[181] and had a recurring role in The Big Bang Theory.[398] Hawking allowed the use of his copyrighted voice[399][400] in the biographical 2014 film The Theory of Everything, in which he was portrayed by Eddie Redmayne in an Academy Award-winning role.[401] Hawking was featured at the Monty Python Live (Mostly) show in 2014. He was shown to sing an extended version of the "Galaxy Song", after running down Brian Cox with his wheelchair, in a pre-recorded video.[402][403] Hawking used his fame to advertise products, including a wheelchair,[295] National Savings,[404] British Telecom, Specsavers, Egg Banking,[405] and Go Compare.[406] In 2015, he applied to trademark his name.[407] Broadcast in March 2018 just a week or two before his death, Hawking was the voice of The Book Mark II on The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy radio series, and he was the guest of Neil deGrasse Tyson on StarTalk.[408] The 2021 animated sitcom The Freak Brothers features a recurring character, Mayor Pimco, who is apparently modeled after Stephen Hawking.[409] On 8 January 2022, Google featured Hawking in a Google Doodle on the occasion of his 80th birthday.[410] Awards and honours Hawking being presented by his daughter Lucy Hawking at the lecture he gave for NASA's 50th anniversary, 2008 Hawking received numerous awards and honours. Already early in the list, in 1974 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).[6] At that time, his nomination read: Hawking has made major contributions to the field of general relativity. These derive from a deep understanding of what is relevant to physics and astronomy, and especially from a mastery of wholly new mathematical techniques. Following the pioneering work of Penrose he established, partly alone and partly in collaboration with Penrose, a series of successively stronger theorems establishing the fundamental result that all realistic cosmological models must possess singularities. Using similar techniques, Hawking has proved the basic theorems on the laws governing black holes: that stationary solutions of Einstein's equations with smooth event horizons must necessarily be axisymmetric; and that in the evolution and interaction of black holes, the total surface area of the event horizons must increase. In collaboration with G. Ellis, Hawking is the author of an impressive and original treatise on "Space-time in the Large". The citation continues, "Other important work by Hawking relates to the interpretation of cosmological observations and to the design of gravitational wave detectors."[411] Hawking was also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1984),[412] the American Philosophical Society (1984),[413] and the United States National Academy of Sciences (1992).[414] Hawking received the 2015 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences shared with Viatcheslav Mukhanov for discovering that the galaxies were formed from quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. At the 2016 Pride of Britain Awards, Hawking received the lifetime achievement award "for his contribution to science and British culture".[415] After receiving the award from Prime Minister Theresa May, Hawking humorously requested that she not seek his help with Brexit.[415] The Hawking Fellowship Main article: Hawking Fellowship In 2017, the Cambridge Union Society, in conjunction with Hawking, established the Professor Stephen Hawking Fellowship. The fellowship is awarded annually to an individual who has made an exceptional contribution to the STEM fields and social discourse,[416] with a particular focus on impacts affecting the younger generations. Each fellow delivers a lecture on a topic of their choosing, known as the 'Hawking Lecture'.[417] Hawking himself accepted the inaugural fellowship, and he delivered the first Hawking Lecture in his last public appearance before his death. [418][419] Medal for Science Communication Main article: Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication Hawking was a member of the advisory board of the Starmus Festival, and had a major role in acknowledging and promoting science communication. The Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication is an annual award initiated in 2016 to honour members of the arts community for contributions that help build awareness of science.[420] Recipients receive a medal bearing a portrait of Hawking by Alexei Leonov, and the other side represents an image of Leonov himself performing the first spacewalk along with an image of the "Red Special", the guitar of Queen musician and astrophysicist Brian May (with music being another major component of the Starmus Festival).[421] The Starmus III Festival in 2016 was a tribute to Stephen Hawking and the book of all Starmus III lectures, "Beyond the Horizon", was also dedicated to him. The first recipients of the medals, which were awarded at the festival, were chosen by Hawking himself. They were composer Hans Zimmer, physicist Jim Al-Khalili, and the science documentary Particle Fever.[422] Publications Popular books A Brief History of Time (1988)[199] Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1993)[423] The Universe in a Nutshell (2001)[199] On the Shoulders of Giants (2002)[199] God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History (2005)[199] The Dreams That Stuff Is Made of: The Most Astounding Papers of Quantum Physics and How They Shook the Scientific World (2011)[424] My Brief History (2013)[199] Hawking's memoir. Brief Answers to the Big Questions (2018)[344][425] Co-authored The Nature of Space and Time (with Roger Penrose) (1996) The Large, the Small and the Human Mind (with Roger Penrose, Abner Shimony and Nancy Cartwright) (1997) The Future of Spacetime (with Kip Thorne, Igor Novikov, Timothy Ferris and introduction by Alan Lightman, Richard H. Price) (2002) A Briefer History of Time (with Leonard Mlodinow) (2005)[199] The Grand Design (with Leonard Mlodinow) (2010)[199] Forewords Black Holes & Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy (Kip Thorne, and introduction by Frederick Seitz) (1994) The Physics of Star Trek (Lawrence Krauss) (1995) Children's fiction Co-written with his daughter Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe (2007)[199] George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt (2009)[199] George and the Big Bang (2011)[199] George and the Unbreakable Code (2014) George and the Blue Moon (2016) Films and series A Brief History of Time (1992)[426] Stephen Hawking's Universe (1997)[427][233] Hawking – BBC television film (2004) starring Benedict Cumberbatch Horizon: The Hawking Paradox (2005)[428] Masters of Science Fiction (2007)[429] Stephen Hawking and the Theory of Everything (2007) Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe (2008)[430] Into the Universe with Stephen Hawking (2010)[431] Brave New World with Stephen Hawking (2011)[432] Stephen Hawking's Grand Design (2012)[433] The Big Bang Theory (2012, 2014–2015, 2017) Stephen Hawking: A Brief History of Mine (2013)[434] The Theory of Everything – Feature film (2014) starring Eddie Redmayne[435] Genius by Stephen Hawking (2016) Selected academic works S. W. Hawking; R. Penrose (27 January 1970). "The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 314 (1519): 529–548. Bibcode:1970RSPSA.314..529H. doi:10.1098/RSPA.1970.0021. ISSN 1364-5021. S2CID 120208756. Zbl 0954.83012. Wikidata Q55872061. S. W. Hawking (May 1971). "Gravitational Radiation from Colliding Black Holes". Physical Review Letters. 26 (21): 1344–1346. Bibcode:1971PhRvL..26.1344H. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.26.1344. ISSN 0031-9007. Wikidata Q21706376. Stephen Hawking (June 1972). "Black holes in general relativity". Communications in Mathematical Physics. 25 (2): 152–166. Bibcode:1972CMaPh..25..152H. doi:10.1007/BF01877517. ISSN 0010-3616. S2CID 121527613. Wikidata Q56453197. Stephen Hawking (March 1974). "Black hole explosions?". Nature. 248 (5443): 30–31. Bibcode:1974Natur.248...30H. doi:10.1038/248030A0. ISSN 1476-4687. S2CID 4290107. Zbl 1370.83053. Wikidata Q54017915. Stephen Hawking (September 1982). "The development of irregularities in a single bubble inflationary universe". Physics Letters B. 115 (4): 295–297. Bibcode:1982PhLB..115..295H. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(82)90373-2. ISSN 0370-2693. Wikidata Q29398982. J. B. Hartle; S. W. Hawking (December 1983). "Wave function of the Universe". Physical Review D. 28 (12): 2960–2975. Bibcode:1983PhRvD..28.2960H. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVD.28.2960. ISSN 1550-7998. Zbl 1370.83118. Wikidata Q21707690. Stephen Hawking; C J Hunter (1 October 1996). "The gravitational Hamiltonian in the presence of non-orthogonal boundaries". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 13 (10): 2735–2752. arXiv:gr-qc/9603050. Bibcode:1996CQGra..13.2735H. CiteSeerX doi:10.1088/0264-9381/13/10/012. ISSN 0264-9381. S2CID 10715740. Zbl 0859.58038. Wikidata Q56551504. S. W. Hawking (October 2005). "Information loss in black holes". Physical Review D. 72 (8). arXiv:hep-th/0507171. Bibcode:2005PhRvD..72h4013H. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVD.72.084013. ISSN 1550-7998. S2CID 118893360. Wikidata Q21651473. Stephen Hawking; Thomas Hertog (April 2018). "A smooth exit from eternal inflation?". Journal of High Energy Physics. 2018 (4). arXiv:1707.07702. Bibcode:2018JHEP...04..147H. doi:10.1007/JHEP04(2018)147. ISSN 1126-6708. S2CID 13745992. Zbl 1390.83455. Wikidata Q55878494. Notes By considering the effect of a black hole's event horizon on virtual particle production, Hawking found in 1974, much to his surprise, that black holes emit black-body radiation associated with a temperature that can be expressed (in the nonspinning case) as: = ℏ 3 8 , {\displaystyle T={\frac {\hbar c^{3}}{8\pi GMk}},} where {\displaystyle T} is black hole temperature, ℏ{\displaystyle \hbar } is the reduced Planck constant, {\displaystyle c} is the speed of light, {\displaystyle G} is the Newtonian constant of gravitation, {\displaystyle M} is the mass of the black hole, and {\displaystyle k} is the Boltzmann constant. This relationship between concepts from the disparate fields of general relativity, quantum mechanics and thermodynamics implies the existence of deep connections between them and may presage their unification. It is inscribed on Hawking's memorial stone.[331] The equation's most fundamental implication can be obtained as follows. According to thermodynamics, this temperature is associated with an entropy, {\displaystyle S}, such that = 2 / 2 , {\displaystyle T=Mc^{2}/2S,} where 2 {\displaystyle Mc^{2}} is the energy of a (nonspinning) black hole as expressed with Einstein's formula.[332] Combining equations then gives: = 4 2 ℏ . {\displaystyle S={\frac {4\pi GM^{2}k}{\hbar c}}.} Now, the radius of a nonspinning black hole is given by = 2 2 , {\displaystyle r={\frac {2GM}{c^{2}}},} and since its surface area is just = 4 2 , {\displaystyle A=4\pi r^{2},} {\displaystyle S} can be expressed in terms of surface area as:[329][333] BH = 3 4 ℏ , {\displaystyle S{\text{BH}}={\frac {kc^{3}}{4\hbar G}}A,} where the subscript BH stands for either "black hole" or "Bekenstein–Hawking". This can be expressed more simply as a proportionality between two dimensionless ratios: BH = 1 4 P 2 , {\displaystyle {\frac {S{\text{BH}}}{k}}={\frac {1}{4}}{\frac {A}{l{\text{P}}^{2}}},} where P = ℏ / 3 {\displaystyle l{\text{P}}={\sqrt {\hbar G/c^{3}}}} is the Planck length. Jacob Bekenstein had conjectured the proportionality; Hawking confirmed it and established the constant of proportionality at 1 / 4 {\displaystyle 1/4}.[308][103] Calculations based on string theory, first carried out in 1995, have been found to yield the same result.[334] This relationship is conjectured to be valid not just for black holes, but also (since entropy is proportional to information) as an upper bound on the amount of information that can be contained in any volume of space, which has in turn spawned deeper reflections on the possible nature of reality. 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Bennett / Gilles Brassard (2018) Stephen Hawking1942 births2018 deaths20th-century atheists20th-century British astronomers20th-century British physicists20th-century English male writers21st-century atheists21st-century British astronomers21st-century British physicists21st-century English male writers21st-century English memoiristsAlbert Einstein Medal recipientsAlumni of Trinity Hall, CambridgeAlumni of University College, OxfordBritish relativity theoristsBritish transhumanistsBritish scientists with disabilitiesBurials at Westminster AbbeyCambridge mathematiciansCommanders of the Order of the British EmpireDeaths from motor neuron disease in EnglandEnglish anti–Iraq War activistsEnglish astronomersEnglish atheistsEnglish children's writersEnglish humanistsEnglish male non-fiction writersEnglish people of Scottish descentEnglish writers with disabilitiesEnglish physicistsEnglish science fiction writersEnglish science writersFellows of Gonville and Caius College, CambridgeFellows of the Royal SocietyForeign associates of the National Academy of SciencesLabour Party (UK) peopleLucasian Professors of MathematicsManchester Literary and Philosophical SocietyMaxwell Medal and Prize recipientsMembers of the American Philosophical SocietyMembers of the Order of the Companions of HonourMembers of the Pontifical Academy of SciencesMental calculatorsPeople educated at Byron House SchoolPeople educated at St Albans High School for GirlsPeople educated at St Albans School, HertfordshirePeople from St AlbansPeople with tetraplegiaPresidential Medal of Freedom recipientsRecipients of Franklin MedalRecipients of the Copley MedalRecipients of the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical SocietyScientists from OxfordUniversal basic income in the United KingdomWheelchair usersWolf Prize in Physics laureatesWriters from Oxford Cosmology Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Cosmology (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Cosmetology. The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) was completed in September 2012 and shows the farthest galaxies ever photographed at that time. Except for the few stars in the foreground (which are bright and easily recognizable because only they have diffraction spikes), every speck of light in the photo is an individual galaxy, some of them as old as 13.2 billion years; the observable universe is estimated to contain more than 2 trillion galaxies.[1] Cosmology (from Ancient Greek κόσμος (cosmos) 'the universe, the world', and λογία (logia) 'study of') is a branch of physics and metaphysics dealing with the nature of the universe, the cosmos. The term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blount's Glossographia,[2] and in 1731 taken up in Latin by German philosopher Christian Wolff, in Cosmologia Generalis.[3] Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology. In the science of astronomy, cosmology is concerned with the study of the chronology of the universe. Physical cosmology is the study of the observable universe's origin, its large-scale structures and dynamics, and the ultimate fate of the universe, including the laws of science that govern these areas.[4] It is investigated by scientists, including astronomers and physicists, as well as philosophers, such as metaphysicians, philosophers of physics, and philosophers of space and time. Because of this shared scope with philosophy, theories in physical cosmology may include both scientific and non-scientific propositions and may depend upon assumptions that cannot be tested. Physical cosmology is a sub-branch of astronomy that is concerned with the universe as a whole. Modern physical cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang Theory which attempts to bring together observational astronomy and particle physics;[5][6] more specifically, a standard parameterization of the Big Bang with dark matter and dark energy, known as the Lambda-CDM model. Theoretical astrophysicist David N. Spergel has described cosmology as a "historical science" because "when we look out in space, we look back in time" due to the finite nature of the speed of light.[7] Disciplines Nature timeline This box: viewtalkedit −13 — – −12 — – −11 — – −10 — – −9 — – −8 — – −7 — – −6 — – −5 — – −4 — – −3 — – −2 — – −1 — – 0 — Dark Ages Reionization Matter-dominated era Accelerated expansion Water on Earth Single-celled life Photosynthesis Multicellular life Vertebrates ← Earliest Universe ← Earliest stars ← Earliest galaxy ← Earliest quasar / black hole ← Omega Centauri ← Andromeda Galaxy ← Milky Way spirals ← NGC 188 star cluster ← Alpha Centauri ← Earth / Solar System ← Earliest known life ← Earliest oxygen ← Atmospheric oxygen ← Sexual reproduction ← Earliest fungi ← Earliest animals / plants ← Cambrian explosion ← Earliest mammals ← Earliest apes / humans L i f e (billion years ago) Physics and astrophysics have played central roles in shaping our understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. Physical cosmology was shaped through both mathematics and observation in an analysis of the whole universe. The universe is generally understood to have begun with the Big Bang, followed almost instantaneously by cosmic inflation, an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago.[8] Cosmogony studies the origin of the universe, and cosmography maps the features of the universe. In Diderot's Encyclopédie, cosmology is broken down into uranology (the science of the heavens), aerology (the science of the air), geology (the science of the continents), and hydrology (the science of waters).[9] Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of humans in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exemplified by Marcus Aurelius's observation that a man's place in that relationship: "He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is."[10] Discoveries Physical cosmology Main article: Physical cosmology See also: Observational cosmology Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the universe on a large scale. In its earliest form, it was what is now known as "celestial mechanics", the study of the heavens. Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle, and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. The geocentric Ptolemaic system was the prevailing theory until the 16th century when Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, proposed a heliocentric system. This is one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology. Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, was the first description of the law of universal gravitation. It provided a physical mechanism for Kepler's laws and also allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton's cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle—that the bodies on Earth obey the same physical laws as all celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology. Modern scientific cosmology is widely considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein's publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper "Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity"[11] (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild, and Arthur Eddington to explore its astronomical ramifications, which enhanced the ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Physicists began changing the assumption that the universe was static and unchanging. In 1922, Alexander Friedmann introduced the idea of an expanding universe that contained moving matter. Part of a series on Physical cosmology Big Bang · Universe Age of the universe Chronology of the universe Early universe Inflation · Nucleosynthesis Backgrounds Gravitational wave (GWB) Microwave (CMB) · Neutrino (CNB) Expansion · Future Hubble's law · Redshift Expansion of the universe FLRW metric · Friedmann equations Inhom*ogeneous cosmology Future of an expanding universe Ultimate fate of the universe Components · Structure Components Lambda-CDM model Dark energy · Dark matter Structure Shape of the universe Galaxy filament · Galaxy formation Large quasar group Large-scale structure Reionization · Structure formation Experiments Black Hole Initiative (BHI) BOOMERanG Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Dark Energy Survey Planck space observatory Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey ("2dF") Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Scientists Aaronson Alfvén Alpher Copernicus de Sitter Dicke Ehlers Einstein Ellis Friedmann Galileo Gamow Guth Hawking Hubble Huygens Kepler Lemaître Mather Newton Penrose Penzias Rubin Schmidt Smoot Suntzeff Sunyaev Tolman Wilson Zeldovich List of cosmologists Subject history Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation History of the Big Bang theory Timeline of cosmological theories Category Astronomy portal vte In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax – the Great Debate (1917 to 1922) – with early cosmologists such as Heber Curtis and Ernst Öpik determining that some nebulae seen in telescopes were separate galaxies far distant from our own.[12] While Heber Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right as island universes, Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate on 26 April 1920 at the meeting of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. The debate was resolved when Edwin Hubble detected Cepheid Variables in the Andromeda Galaxy in 1923 and 1924.[13][14] Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way. Subsequent modelling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant, introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper, may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value. Thus the Big Bang model was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927[15] which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble's discovery of the redshift in 1929[16] and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964.[17] These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative cosmologies. Since around 1990, several dramatic advances in observational cosmology have transformed cosmology from a largely speculative science into a predictive science with precise agreement between theory and observation. These advances include observations of the microwave background from the COBE,[18] WMAP[19] and Planck satellites,[20] large new galaxy redshift surveys including 2dfGRS[21] and SDSS,[22] and observations of distant supernovae and gravitational lensing. These observations matched the predictions of the cosmic inflation theory, a modified Big Bang theory, and the specific version known as the Lambda-CDM model. This has led many to refer to modern times as the "golden age of cosmology".[23] In 2014, the BICEP2 collaboration claimed that they had detected the imprint of gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background. However, this result was later found to be spurious: the supposed evidence of gravitational waves was in fact due to interstellar dust.[24][25] On 1 December 2014, at the Planck 2014 meeting in Ferrara, Italy, astronomers reported that the universe is 13.8 billion years old and composed of 4.9% atomic matter, 26.6% dark matter and 68.5% dark energy.[26] Religious or mythological cosmology See also: Religious cosmology Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation and eschatology. Creation myths are found in most religions, and are typically split into five different classifications, based on a system created by Mircea Eliade and his colleague Charles Long. Types of Creation Myths based on similar motifs: Creation ex nihilo in which the creation is through the thought, word, dream or bodily secretions of a divine being. Earth diver creation in which a diver, usually a bird or amphibian sent by a creator, plunges to the seabed through a primordial ocean to bring up sand or mud which develops into a terrestrial world. Emergence myths in which progenitors pass through a series of worlds and metamorphoses until reaching the present world. Creation by the dismemberment of a primordial being. Creation by the splitting or ordering of a primordial unity such as the cracking of a cosmic egg or a bringing order from chaos.[27] Philosophy Representation of the observable universe on a logarithmic scale. Distance from the Sun increases from center to edge. Planets and other celestial bodies were enlarged to appreciate their shapes. Cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was found in religion.[28] Some questions about the Universe are beyond the scope of scientific inquiry, but may still be interrogated through appeals to other philosophical approaches like dialectics. Some questions that are included in extra-scientific endeavors may include:[29][30] What is the origin of the universe? What is its first cause (if any)? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism) What are the ultimate material components of the universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism) What is the ultimate reason (if any) for the existence of the universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology) Does the existence of consciousness have a role in the existence of reality? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths? (see epistemology) Historical cosmologies Further information: Timeline of cosmological theories and Nicolaus Copernicus § Copernican system This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Cosmology" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Name Author and date Classification Remarks Hindu cosmology Rigveda (c. 1700–1100 BCE) Cyclical or oscillating, Infinite in time Primal matter remains manifest for 311.04 trillion years and unmanifest for an equal length. The universe remains manifest for 4.32 billion years and unmanifest for an equal length. Innumerable universes exist simultaneously. These cycles have and will last forever, driven by desires. Zoroastrian Cosmology Avesta (c. 1500–600 BCE) Dualistic Cosmology According to Zoroastrian Cosmology, the universe is the manifestation of perpetual conflict between Existence and non-existence, Good and evil and light and darkness. the universe will remain in this state for 12000 years; at the time of resurrection, the two elements will be separated again. Jain cosmology Jain Agamas (written around 500 CE as per the teachings of Mahavira 599–527 BCE) Cyclical or oscillating, eternal and finite Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. Babylonian cosmology Babylonian literature (c. 2300–500 BCE) Flat Earth floating in infinite "waters of chaos" The Earth and the Heavens form a unit within infinite "waters of chaos"; the Earth is flat and circular, and a solid dome (the "firmament") keeps out the outer "chaos"-ocean. Eleatic cosmology Parmenides (c. 515 BCE) Finite and spherical in extent The Universe is unchanging, uniform, perfect, necessary, timeless, and neither generated nor perishable. Void is impossible. Plurality and change are products of epistemic ignorance derived from sense experience. Temporal and spatial limits are arbitrary and relative to the Parmenidean whole. Samkhya Cosmic Evolution Kapila (6th century BCE), pupil Asuri Prakriti (Matter) and Purusha (Consiouness) Relation Prakriti (Matter) is the source of the world of becoming. It is pure potentiality that evolves itself successively into twenty four tattvas or principles. The evolution itself is possible because Prakriti is always in a state of tension among its constituent strands known as gunas (Sattva (lightness or purity), Rajas (passion or activity), and Tamas (inertia or heaviness)). The cause and effect theory of Sankhya is called Satkaarya-vaada (theory of existent causes), and holds that nothing can really be created from or destroyed into nothingness—all evolution is simply the transformation of primal Nature from one form to another.[citation needed] Biblical cosmology Genesis creation narrative Earth floating in infinite "waters of chaos" The Earth and the Heavens form a unit within infinite "waters of chaos"; the "firmament" keeps out the outer "chaos"-ocean. Anaximander's model Anaximander (c. 560 BCE) Geocentric, cylindrical Earth, infinite in extent, finite time; first purely mechanical model The Earth floats very still in the centre of the infinite, not supported by anything.[31] At the origin, after the separation of hot and cold, a ball of flame appeared that surrounded Earth like bark on a tree. This ball broke apart to form the rest of the Universe. It resembled a system of hollow concentric wheels, filled with fire, with the rims pierced by holes like those of a flute; no heavenly bodies as such, only light through the holes. Three wheels, in order outwards from Earth: stars (including planets), Moon and a large Sun.[32] Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500–428 BCE) and later Epicurus Infinite in extent The universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds (atoms) and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus' principle of causality: "nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity". The universe was not ruled by gods.[citation needed] Pythagorean universe Philolaus (d. 390 BCE) Existence of a "Central Fire" at the center of the Universe. At the center of the Universe is a central fire, around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and planets revolve uniformly. The Sun revolves around the central fire once a year, the stars are immobile. The Earth in its motion maintains the same hidden face towards the central fire, hence it is never seen. First known non-geocentric model of the Universe.[33] De Mundo Pseudo-Aristotle (d. 250 BCE or between 350 and 200 BCE) The Universe is a system made up of heaven and Earth and the elements which are contained in them. There are "five elements, situated in spheres in five regions, the less being in each case surrounded by the greater – namely, earth surrounded by water, water by air, air by fire, and fire by ether – make up the whole Universe."[34] Stoic universe Stoics (300 BCE – 200 CE) Island universe The cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, and pulsates in size and undergoes periodic upheavals and conflagrations. Platonic universe Plato (c. 360 BCE) Geocentric, complex cosmogony, finite extent, implied finite time, cyclical Static Earth at center, surrounded by heavenly bodies which move in perfect circles, arranged by the will of the demiurge[35] in order: Moon, Sun, planets and fixed stars.[36][37] Complex motions repeat every 'perfect' year.[38] Eudoxus' model Eudoxus of Cnidus (c. 340 BCE) and later Callippus Geocentric, first geometric-mathematical model The heavenly bodies move as if they were attached to a number of Earth centered concentrical, invisible spheres, every of them rotating around its own and different axis and at different paces.[39] There are twenty-seven hom*ocentric spheres with each sphere explaining a type of observable motion for each celestial object. Eudoxus emphasised that this is a purely mathematical construct of the model in the sense that the spheres of each celestial body do not exist, it just shows the possible positions of the bodies.[40] Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384–322 BCE) Geocentric (based on Eudoxus' model), static, steady state, finite extent, infinite time Static and spherical Earth is surrounded by 43 to 55 concentric celestial spheres, which are material and crystalline.[41] Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether, that was added to the four classical elements.[42] Aristarchean universe Aristarchus (c. 280 BCE) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the Sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the Sun.[43] Ptolemaic model Ptolemy (2nd century CE) Geocentric (based on Aristotelian universe) Universe orbits around a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets. The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. The Almagest (the Great System). Capella's model Martianus Capella (c. 420) Geocentric and Heliocentric The Earth is at rest in the center of the universe and circled by the Moon, the Sun, three planets and the stars, while Mercury and Venus circle the Sun.[44] Aryabhatan model Aryabhata (499) Geocentric or Heliocentric The Earth rotates and the planets move in elliptical orbits around either the Earth or Sun; uncertain whether the model is geocentric or heliocentric due to planetary orbits given with respect to both the Earth and Sun. Medieval universe Medieval philosophers (500–1200) Finite in time A universe that is finite in time and has a beginning is proposed by the Christian philosopher John Philoponus, who argues against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Logical arguments supporting a finite universe are developed by the early Muslim philosopher Al-Kindi, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon, and the Muslim theologian Al-Ghazali. Non-Parallel Multiverse Bhagvata Puran(800–1000) Multiverse, Non Parallel Innumerable universes is comparable to the multiverse theory, except nonparallel where each universe is different and individual jiva-atmas (embodied souls) exist in exactly one universe at a time. All universes manifest from the same matter, and so they all follow parallel time cycles, manifesting and unmanifesting at the same time.[45] Multiversal cosmology Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Multiverse, multiple worlds and universes There exists an infinite outer space beyond the known world, and God has the power to fill the vacuum with an infinite number of universes. Maragha models Maragha school (1259–1528) Geocentric Various modifications to Ptolemaic model and Aristotelian universe, including rejection of equant and eccentrics at Maragheh observatory, and introduction of Tusi-couple by Al-Tusi. Alternative models later proposed, including the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir, a model rejecting stationary Earth in favour of Earth's rotation by Ali Kuşçu, and planetary model incorporating "circular inertia" by Al-Birjandi. Nilakanthan model Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544) Geocentric and heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun, which orbits the Earth; similar to the later Tychonic system. Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) Heliocentric with circular planetary orbits, finite extent First described in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. The Sun is in the center of the universe, planets including Earth orbit the Sun, but the Moon orbits the Earth. The universe is limited by the sphere of the fixed stars. Tychonic system Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the earlier Nilakanthan model. Bruno's cosmology Giordano Bruno (1548–1600) Infinite extent, infinite time, hom*ogeneous, isotropic, non-hierarchical Rejects the idea of a hierarchical universe. Earth and Sun have no special properties in comparison with the other heavenly bodies. The void between the stars is filled with aether, and matter is composed of the same four elements (water, earth, fire, and air), and is atomistic, animistic and intelligent. De Magnete William Gilbert (1544–1603) Heliocentric, indefinitely extended Copernican heliocentrism, but he rejects the idea of a limiting sphere of the fixed stars for which no proof has been offered.[46] Keplerian Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) Heliocentric with elliptical planetary orbits Kepler's discoveries, marrying mathematics and physics, provided the foundation for the present conception of the Solar System, but distant stars were still seen as objects in a thin, fixed celestial sphere. Static Newtonian Isaac Newton (1642–1727) Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but unstable. Cartesian Vortex universe René Descartes, 17th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite System of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces gravitational effects. But his vacuum was not empty; all space was filled with matter. Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant, Johann Lambert, 18th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly recycled. Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant Albert Einstein, 1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) "Matter without motion". Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann's hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to Λ. In effect Λ is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. Unstable. De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter, 1917 Expanding flat space. Steady state. Λ > 0 "Motion without matter." Only apparently static. Based on Einstein's general relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor increases exponentially (constant inflation). MacMillan universe William Duncan MacMillan 1920s Static and steady state New matter is created from radiation; starlight perpetually recycled into new matter particles. Friedmann universe, spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space. k = +1 ; no Λ Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1 Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite). Friedmann universe, hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann, 1924 Hyperbolic expanding space. k = −1 ; no Λ Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever. Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves. Friedmann zero-curvature Einstein and De Sitter, 1932 Expanding flat space k = 0 ; Λ = 0 Critical density Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). "Unbounded cosmos of limited extent". Expands forever. "Simplest" of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q = 1/2, which means that its expansion rate slows down. The original Big Bang (Friedmann-Lemaître) Georges Lemaître 1927–29 Expansion Λ > 0 ; Λ > |Gravity| Λ is positive and has a magnitude greater than gravity. Universe has initial high-density state ("primeval atom"). Followed by a two-stage expansion. Λ is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered the father of the Big Bang model.) Oscillating universe (Friedmann-Einstein) Favored by Friedmann, 1920s Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox. Perpetual cycles of Big Bang followed by Big Crunch. (Einstein's first choice after he rejected his 1917 model.) Eddington universe Arthur Eddington 1930 First static then expands Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a De Sitter universe. Λ dominates gravity. Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935; William H. McCrea, 1930s Kinematic expansion without space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle and special relativity; consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands within an infinite and otherwise empty flat space. It has a center and a cosmic edge (surface of the particle cloud) that expands at light speed. Explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are hom*ogeneous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all co-moving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson–Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space. Steady-state Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, 1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere. Exponential expansion. Deceleration term q = −1. Steady-state Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable. Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén 1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter–antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology. The universe is viewed as "meta-galaxies" divided by double layers and thus a bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting. Brans–Dicke theory Carl H. Brans, Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach's principle. G varies with time as universe expands. "But nobody is quite sure what Mach's principle actually means."[citation needed] Cosmic inflation Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang modified to solve horizon and flatness problems Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux – hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart. Eternal inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde, 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation Multiverse based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like the entire cosmos. Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam. Cyclic model Paul Steinhardt; Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M-theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher-dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy. Cyclic model Lauris Baum; Paul Frampton 2007 Solution of Tolman's entropy problem Phantom dark energy fragments universe into large number of disconnected patches. The observable patch contracts containing only dark energy with zero entropy. Table notes: the term "static" simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton's gravitational constant; Λ (Lambda) is the cosmological constant. See also Absolute time and space Big History Earth science Galaxy formation and evolution Illustris project Jainism and non-creationism Lambda-CDM model List of astrophysicists Non-standard cosmology Taiji (philosophy) Timeline of cosmological theories Universal rotation curve Warm inflation Big Ring References Karl Hille, ed. (13 October 2016). "Hubble Reveals Observable Universe Contains 10 Times More Galaxies Than Previously Thought". NASA. Retrieved 17 October 2016. Hetherington, Norriss S. (2014). Encyclopedia of Cosmology (Routledge Revivals): Historical, Philosophical, and Scientific Foundations of Modern Cosmology. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-317-67766-6. Luminet, Jean-Pierre (2008). The Wraparound Universe. CRC Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-4398-6496-8. Extract of page 170 "Introduction: Cosmology – space" Archived 3 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. New Scientist. 4 September 2006 "Cosmology" Oxford Dictionaries Overbye, Dennis (25 February 2019). 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The critic of Plato. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09456-6. Hirshfeld, Alan W. (2004). "The Triangles of Aristarchus". The Mathematics Teacher. 97 (4): 228–231. doi:10.5951/MT.97.4.0228. ISSN 0025-5769. JSTOR 20871578. Bruce S. Eastwood, Ordering the Heavens: Roman Astronomy and Cosmology in the Carolingian Renaissance (Leiden: Brill, 2007), pp. 238–9. Mirabello, Mark (15 September 2016). A Traveler's Guide to the Afterlife: Traditions and Beliefs on Death, Dying, and What Lies Beyond. Simon and Schuster. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-62055-598-9. Gilbert, William (1893). "Book 6, Chapter III". De Magnete. Translated by Mottelay, P. Fleury. (Facsimile). New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-26761-X. Sources Bragg, Melvyn (2023). "The Universe's Shape". BBC. Retrieved 23 May 2023. "Melvyn Bragg discusses shape, size and topology of the universe and examines theories about its expansion. If it is already infinite, how can it be getting any bigger? And is there really only one?" "Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology". American Institute of Physics. 2023. Retrieved 23 May 2023. "The history of cosmology is a grand story of discovery, from ancient Greek astronomy to -space telescopes." Dodelson, Scott; Schmidt, Fabian (2020). Modern Cosmology 2nd Edition. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0128159484. Download full text: Dodelson, Scott; Schmidt, Fabian (2020). "Scott Dodelson - Fabian Schmidt - Modern Cosmology (2021) PDF" (PDF). Academic Press. Retrieved 23 May 2023. "Genesis, Search for Origins. End of mission wrap up". NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 23 May 2023. "About 4.6 billion years ago, the solar nebula transformed into the present solar system. In order to chemically model the processes which drove that transformation, we would, ideally, like to have a sample of that original nebula to use as a baseline from which we can track changes." Leonard, Scott A; McClure, Michael (2004). Myth and Knowing. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-7674-1957-4. Lyth, David (12 December 1993). "Introduction to Cosmology". arXiv:astro-ph/9312022. "These notes form an introduction to cosmology with special emphasis on large scale structure, the cmb anisotropy and inflation." Lectures given at the Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology, ICTP (Trieste) 1993.) 60 pages, plus 5 Figures. "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)". NASA. 2023. Retrieved 23 May 2023. "April 2023 Release Highlights Database Updates" "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)". NASA. 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For other uses, see Scientist (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Scientologist. Scientist Pierre Curie and Marie Curie demonstrating an apparatus that detects radioactivity. They received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics for their scientific research; Marie also received the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Occupation Names Scientist Occupation type Profession Activity sectors Laboratory, field research Description Competencies Scientific research Education required Science Fields of employment Academia, industry, government, nonprofit Related jobs Engineers Part of a series on Science icon Science portalOutlineCategoryIndexGlossaryDisambiguationHistoryLiteraturePhilosophy Fields (Outline / List) Intrascientific fields Applied sciencesFormal sciences MathematicalComputerInterdisciplinary sciencesNatural sciences PhysicalLifeEnvironmentalSocial sciences CulturalEconomicalHumanPolitical Extrascientific fields ArtsCommunication studiesCraftFuturologyHistoryHumanitiesKnowledge managementLanguage studiesLawLiberal artsLiteratureMusicPhilosophyPolemologyProfessionsReligionResearch and developmentStrategic studiesUrban studiesVocational education Scientific integrity ReproducibilityCognitive biasLogical fallacyResearch ethics Instruments Science communicationScience educationResearch fundingScientific methodScience policyScientistResearchTechnology This is a subseries on philosophy. In order to explore related topics, please visit navigation. vte A scientist is a person who researches to advance knowledge in an area of the natural sciences.[1][2][3][4] In classical antiquity, there was no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, philosophers engaged in the philosophical study of nature called natural philosophy, a precursor of natural science.[5] Though Thales (circa 624–545 BC) was arguably the first scientist for describing how cosmic events may be seen as natural, not necessarily caused by gods,[6][7][8][9][10][11] it was not until the 19th century that the term scientist came into regular use after it was coined by the theologian, philosopher, and historian of science William Whewell in 1833.[12][13] History "No one in the history of civilization has shaped our understanding of science and natural philosophy more than the great Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384-322 BC), who exerted a profound and pervasive influence for more than two thousand years" —Gary B. Ferngren[14] Alessandro Volta, the inventor of the electrical battery and discoverer of methane, is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists in history. Francesco Redi, referred to as the "father of modern parasitology", is the founder of experimental biology. Mary Somerville, for whom the word "scientist" was coined. Physicist Albert Einstein developed the general theory of relativity and made many substantial contributions to physics. Physicist Enrico Fermi is credited with the creation of the world's first atomic bomb and nuclear reactor. Atomic physicist Niels Bohr made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory. Marine Biologist Rachel Carson launched the 20th century environmental movement. The roles of "scientists", and their predecessors before the emergence of modern scientific disciplines, have evolved considerably over time. Scientists of different eras (and before them, natural philosophers, mathematicians, natural historians, natural theologians, engineers, and others who contributed to the development of science) have had widely different places in society, and the social norms, ethical values, and epistemic virtues associated with scientists—and expected of them—have changed over time as well. Accordingly, many different historical figures can be identified as early scientists, depending on which characteristics of modern science are taken to be essential. Some historians point to the Scientific Revolution that began in 16th century as the period when science in a recognizably modern form developed. It was not until the 19th century that sufficient socioeconomic changes had occurred for scientists to emerge as a major profession.[15] Classical antiquity Knowledge about nature in classical antiquity was pursued by many kinds of scholars. Greek contributions to science—including works of geometry and mathematical astronomy, early accounts of biological processes and catalogs of plants and animals, and theories of knowledge and learning—were produced by philosophers and physicians, as well as practitioners of various trades. These roles, and their associations with scientific knowledge, spread with the Roman Empire and, with the spread of Christianity, became closely linked to religious institutions in most of European countries. Astrology and astronomy became an important area of knowledge, and the role of astronomer/astrologer developed with the support of political and religious patronage. By the time of the medieval university system, knowledge was divided into the trivium—philosophy, including natural philosophy—and the quadrivium—mathematics, including astronomy. Hence, the medieval analogs of scientists were often either philosophers or mathematicians. Knowledge of plants and animals was broadly the province of physicians. Middle Ages Science in medieval Islam generated some new modes of developing natural knowledge, although still within the bounds of existing social roles such as philosopher and mathematician. Many proto-scientists from the Islamic Golden Age are considered polymaths, in part because of the lack of anything corresponding to modern scientific disciplines. Many of these early polymaths were also religious priests and theologians: for example, Alhazen and al-Biruni were mutakallimiin; the physician Avicenna was a hafiz; the physician Ibn al-Nafis was a hafiz, muhaddith and ulema; the botanist Otto Brunfels was a theologian and historian of Protestantism; the astronomer and physician Nicolaus Copernicus was a priest. During the Italian Renaissance scientists like Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Galileo Galilei and Gerolamo Cardano have been considered as the most recognizable polymaths. Renaissance During the Renaissance, Italians made substantial contributions in science. Leonardo da Vinci made significant discoveries in paleontology and anatomy. The Father of modern Science,[16][17] Galileo Galilei, made key improvements on the thermometer and telescope which allowed him to observe and clearly describe the solar system. Descartes was not only a pioneer of analytic geometry but formulated a theory of mechanics[18] and advanced ideas about the origins of animal movement and perception. Vision interested the physicists Young and Helmholtz, who also studied optics, hearing and music. Newton extended Descartes's mathematics by inventing calculus (at the same time as Leibniz). He provided a comprehensive formulation of classical mechanics and investigated light and optics. Fourier founded a new branch of mathematics — infinite, periodic series — studied heat flow and infrared radiation, and discovered the greenhouse effect. Girolamo Cardano, Blaise Pascal Pierre de Fermat, Von Neumann, Turing, Khinchin, Markov and Wiener, all mathematicians, made major contributions to science and probability theory, including the ideas behind computers, and some of the foundations of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Many mathematically inclined scientists, including Galileo, were also musicians. There are many compelling stories in medicine and biology, such as the development of ideas about the circulation of blood from Galen to Harvey. Some scholars and historians attributes Christianity to having contributed to the rise of the Scientific Revolution.[19][20][21][22][23] Age of Enlightenment During the age of Enlightenment, Luigi Galvani, the pioneer of the bioelectromagnetics, discovered the animal electricity. He discovered that a charge applied to the spinal cord of a frog could generate muscular spasms throughout its body. Charges could make frog legs jump even if the legs were no longer attached to a frog. While cutting a frog leg, Galvani's steel scalpel touched a brass hook that was holding the leg in place. The leg twitched. Further experiments confirmed this effect, and Galvani was convinced that he was seeing the effects of what he called animal electricity, the life force within the muscles of the frog. At the University of Pavia, Galvani's colleague Alessandro Volta was able to reproduce the results, but was sceptical of Galvani's explanation.[24] Lazzaro Spallanzani is one of the most influential figures in experimental physiology and the natural sciences. His investigations have exerted a lasting influence on the medical sciences. He made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions and animal reproduction.[25] Francesco Redi discovered that microorganisms can cause disease. 19th century Until the late 19th or early 20th century, scientists were still referred to as "natural philosophers" or "men of science".[26][27][28][29] English philosopher and historian of science William Whewell coined the term scientist in 1833, and it first appeared in print in Whewell's anonymous 1834 review of Mary Somerville's On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences published in the Quarterly Review.[30] Whewell wrote of "an increasing proclivity of separation and dismemberment" in the sciences; while highly specific terms proliferated—chemist, mathematician, naturalist—the broad term "philosopher" was no longer satisfactory to group together those who pursued science, without the caveats of "natural" or "experimental" philosopher. Whewell compared these increasing divisions with Somerville's aim of "[rendering] a most important service to science" "by showing how detached branches have, in the history of science, united by the discovery of general principles."[31] Whewell reported in his review that members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science had been complaining at recent meetings about the lack of a good term for "students of the knowledge of the material world collectively." Alluding to himself, he noted that "some ingenious gentleman proposed that, by analogy with artist, they might form [the word] scientist, and added that there could be no scruple in making free with this term since we already have such words as economist, and atheist—but this was not generally palatable".[32] Whewell proposed the word again more seriously (and not anonymously) in his 1840[33] The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences: The terminations ize (rather than ise), ism, and ist, are applied to words of all origins: thus we have to pulverize, to colonize, Witticism, Heathenism, Journalist, Tobacconist. Hence we may make such words when they are wanted. As we cannot use physician for a cultivator of physics, I have called him a Physicist. We need very much a name to describe a cultivator of science in general. I should incline to call him a Scientist. Thus we might say, that as an Artist is a Musician, Painter, or Poet, a Scientist is a Mathematician, Physicist, or Naturalist. He also proposed the term physicist at the same time, as a counterpart to the French word physicien. Neither term gained wide acceptance until decades later; scientist became a common term in the late 19th century in the United States and around the turn of the 20th century in Great Britain.[30][34][35] By the twentieth century, the modern notion of science as a special brand of information about the world, practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method, was essentially in place. 20th century Marie Curie became the first woman to win the Nobel Prize and the first person to win it twice. Her efforts led to the development of nuclear energy and Radiotherapy. In 1922, she was appointed a member of the International Commission on Intellectual Co-operation by the Council of the League of Nations. She campaigned for scientist's right to patent their discoveries and inventions. She also campaigned for free access to international scientific literature and for internationally recognized scientific symbols. Profession As a profession, the scientist of today is widely recognized[citation needed]. However, there is no formal process to determine who is a scientist and who is not a scientist. Anyone can be a scientist in some sense. Some professions have legal requirements for their practice (e.g. licensure) and some scientists are independent scientists meaning that they practice science on their own, but to practice science there are no known licensure requirements.[36] Education In modern times, many professional scientists are trained in an academic setting (e.g., universities and research institutes), mostly at the level of graduate schools. Upon completion, they would normally attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).[37] Although graduate education for scientists varies among institutions and countries, some common training requirements include specializing in an area of interest,[38] publishing research findings in peer-reviewed scientific journals[39] and presenting them at scientific conferences,[40] giving lectures or teaching,[40] and defending a thesis (or dissertation) during an oral examination.[37] To aid them in this endeavor, graduate students often work under the guidance of a mentor, usually a senior scientist, which may continue after the completion of their doctorates whereby they work as postdoctoral researchers.[41] Career After the completion of their training, many scientists pursue careers in a variety of work s ettings and conditions.[42] In 2017, the British scientific journal Nature published the results of a large-scale survey of more than 5,700 doctoral students worldwide, asking them which sectors of the economy they would like to work in. A little over half of the respondents wanted to pursue a career in academia, with smaller proportions hoping to work in industry, government, and nonprofit environments.[43][44] Other motivations are recognition by their peers and prestige. The Nobel Prize, a widely regarded prestigious award,[45] is awarded annually to those who have achieved scientific advances in the fields of medicine, physics, and chemistry. Some scientists have a desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of people's health, the nations, the world, nature, or industries (academic scientist and industrial scientist). Scientists tend to be less motivated by direct financial reward for their work than other careers. As a result, scientific researchers often accept lower average salaries when compared with many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification.[citation needed] Research interests Scientists include experimentalists who mainly perform experiments to test hypotheses, and theoreticians who mainly develop models to explain existing data and predict new results. There is a continuum between two activities and the division between them is not clear-cut, with many scientists performing both tasks. Those considering science as a career often look to the frontiers. These include cosmology and biology, especially molecular biology and the human genome project. Other areas of active research include the exploration of matter at the scale of elementary particles as described by high-energy physics, and materials science, which seeks to discover and design new materials. Others choose to study brain function and neurotransmitters, which is considered by many to be the "final frontier".[46][47][48] There are many important discoveries to make regarding the nature of the mind and human thought as much still remains unknown. By specialization Natural science Physical science Chemist Agrochemist Analytical chemist Astrochemist Atmospheric chemist Biophysical chemist Clinical chemist Computational chemist Electrochemist Femtochemist Geochemist Green chemist Chemical laboratory technician Inorganic chemist Medicinal chemist Nuclear chemist Organic chemist Organometallic chemist Pharmacologist Physical chemist Quantum chemist Solid-state chemist Stereochemist Structural chemist Supramolecular chemist Theoretical chemist Thermochemist Earth scientist Astrogeologist Biogeochemist Climatologist Dendroarchaeologist Dendrologist Edaphologist Gemologist Geoarchaeologist Geobiologist Geographer Geologist Geomicrobiologist Geomorphologist Geophysicist Glaciologist Hydrogeologist Hydrologist Hydrometeorologist Limnologist Meteorologist Mineralogist Oceanographer Paleoclimatologist Paleoecologist Paleogeologist Paleoseismologist Palynologist Petrologist Sedimentologist Seismologist Speleologist Volcanologist Physicist Acoustician Agrophysicist Astrophysicist Atmospheric physicist Atomic physicist Biological physicist Chemical physicist Computational physicist Cosmologist Condensed-matter physicist Engineering physicist Material physicist Molecular physicist Nuclear physicist Particle physicist Plasma physicist Polymer physicist Psychophysicist Quantum physicist Theoretical physicist Astronomer Planetary science Space science Cosmology Life science Main article: List of life sciences Biologist Acarologist Aerobiologist Anatomist Arachnologist Bacteriologist Bioclimatologist Biogeographer Bioinformatician Biotechnologist Bioarcheologist Biochemist Biolinguist Biological anthropologist Biophysicist Biostatistician Botanist Cell biologist Chronobiologist Cognitive biologist Computational biologist Conservation biologist Dendrochronologist Developmental biologist Ecologist Electrophysiologist Embryologist Endocrinologist Entomologist Epidemiologist Ethologist Evolutionary biologist Geneticist Hematologist Herbchronologist Herpetologist Histologist Human behavioral ecologist Human biologist Ichnologist Ichthyologist Immunologist Integrative biologist Lepidopterist Mammalogist Marine biologist Medical biologist Microbiologist Molecular biologist Mycologist Neuroendocrinologist Neuroscientist Neuropsychologist Ornithologist Osteologist Paleoanthropologist Paleobotanist Paleobiologist Paleontologist Paleopathologist Parasitologist Pathologist Physiologist Phytopathologist Population biologist Primatologist Quantum biologist Radiobiologist Sclerochronologist Sociobiologist Structural biologist Theoretical biologist Toxicologist Virologist Wildlife biologist Zoologist Social science Anthropologist Archaeologist Cultural anthropologist Linguistic anthropologist Communication scientist Criminologist Demographer Economist Management scientist Political economist Political scientist Psychologist Abnormal psychologist Clinical psychologist Cognitive psychologist Comparative psychologist Developmental psychologist Educational psychologist Evolutionary psychologist Experimental psychologist Forensic psychologist Health psychologist Industrial and organizational psychologist Medical psychologist Social psychologist Sport psychologist Sociologist Formal science Computer scientist Computational scientist Data scientist Mathematician[33] Algebraist Analyst Geometer Logician Probabilist Statistician Topologist Systems scientist Applied Agriculturist Applied physics Health physicist Medical physicist Biomedical scientist Engineering scientist Environmental scientist Food scientist Kinesiologist Nutritionist Operations research and management analysts Physician scientist Interdisciplinary Materials scientist Mathematical biologist Mathematical chemist Mathematical economist Mathematical physicist Mathematical sociologist By employer Academic Independent scientist Industrial/applied scientist Citizen scientist Government scientist Demography By country The number of scientists is vastly different from country to country. For instance, there are only four full-time scientists per 10,000 workers in India, while this number is 79 for the United Kingdom, and 85 for the United States.[49] Scientists per 10,000 workers for selected countries[49] Nigeria: 1 Indonesia: 1 Malaysia: 2 Thailand: 2 Bangladesh: 2 Pakistan: 3 India: 4 Kenya: 6 Chile: 7 Brazil: 14 Egypt: 14 United Arab Emirates: 15 Saudi Arabia: 15 China: 18 South Africa: 20 New Zealand: 35 Spain: 54 Russia: 58 France: 68 Australia: 69 Germany: 70 Italy: 70 Canada: 73 United Kingdom: 79 Japan: 83 United States: 85 Israel: 140 United States According to the National Science Foundation, 4.7 million people with science degrees worked in the United States in 2015, across all disciplines and employment sectors. The figure included twice as many men as women. Of that total, 17% worked in academia, that is, at universities and undergraduate institutions, and men held 53% of those positions. 5% of scientists worked for the federal government, and about 3.5% were self-employed. Of the latter two groups, two-thirds were men. 59% of scientists in the United States were employed in industry or business, and another 6% worked in non-profit positions.[50] By gender See also: Women in science Scientist and engineering statistics are usually intertwined, but they indicate that women enter the field far less than men, though this gap is narrowing. The number of science and engineering doctorates awarded to women rose from a mere 7 percent in 1970 to 34 percent in 1985 and in engineering alone the numbers of bachelor's degrees awarded to women rose from only 385 in 1975 to more than 11000 in 1985.[51] [clarification needed] See also Engineers Inventor Researcher Fields Medal Hippocratic Oath for Scientists History of science Intellectual Independent scientist Licensure Mad scientist Natural science Nobel Prize Protoscience Normative science Pseudoscience Scholar Science Social science Related lists List of engineers List of mathematicians List of Nobel laureates in Physics List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine List of Russian scientists List of Roman Catholic cleric-scientists References "scientist". Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 27 September 2023. "science". Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 27 September 2023. "Eusocial climbers" (PDF). E.O. Wilson Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2018. But he's not a scientist, he's never done scientific research. My definition of a scientist is that you can complete the following sentence: 'he or she has shown that...'," Wilson says. "Our definition of a scientist". Science Council. Retrieved 7 September 2018. A scientist is someone who systematically gathers and uses research and evidence, making a hypothesis and testing it, to gain and share understanding and knowledge. Lehoux, Daryn (2011). "2. Natural Knowledge in the Classical World". In Shank, Michael; Numbers, Ronald; Harrison, Peter (eds.). Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago, U.S.A. Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0226317830. Aristotle, Metaphysics Alpha, 983b18. Public Domain Smith, William, ed. (1870). "Thales". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. p. 1016. Michael Fowler, Early Greek Science: Thales to Plato, University of Virginia [Retrieved 2016-06-16] Frank N. Magill, The Ancient World: Dictionary of World Biography, Volume 1, Routledge, 2003 ISBN 1135457395 Singer, C. (2008). A Short History of Science to the 19th century. Streeter Press. p. 35. Needham, C. W. (1978). Cerebral Logic: Solving the Problem of Mind and Brain. Loose Leaf. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-398-03754-3. Cahan, David, ed. (2003). From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-08928-2. Lightman, Bernard (2011). "Science and the Public". In Shank, Michael; Numbers, Ronald; Harrison, Peter (eds.). Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 367. ISBN 978-0226317830. Gary B. Ferngren (2002). "Science and religion: a historical introduction Archived 2015-03-16 at the Wayback Machine". JHU Press. p.33. ISBN 0-8018-7038-0 On the historical development of the character of scientists and the predecessors, see: Steven Shapin (2008). The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation. Chicago: Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-75024-8 Einstein (1954, p. 271). "Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo realised this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether." Stephen Hawking, Galileo and the Birth of Modern Science Archived 2012-03-24 at the Wayback Machine, American Heritage's Invention & Technology, Spring 2009, Vol. 24, No. 1, p. 36 Peter Damerow (2004). "Introduction". Exploring the Limits of Preclassical Mechanics: A Study of Conceptual Development in Early Modern Science: Free Fall and Compounded Motion in the Work of Descartes, Galileo and Beeckman. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 6. Harrison, Peter (8 May 2012). "Christianity and the rise of western science". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 August 2014. Noll, Mark, Science, Religion, and A.D. White: Seeking Peace in the "Warfare Between Science and Theology" (PDF), The Biologos Foundation, p. 4, archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2015, retrieved 14 January 2015 Lindberg, David C.; Numbers, Ronald L. (1986), "Introduction", God & Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter Between Christianity and Science, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, pp. 5, 12, ISBN 978-0-520-05538-4 Gilley, Sheridan (2006). The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8, World Christianities C.1815-c.1914. Brian Stanley. Cambridge University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-521-81456-1. Lindberg, David. (1992) The Beginnings of Western Science University of Chicago Press. p. 204. Robert Routledge (1881). A popular history of science (2nd ed.). G. Routledge and Sons. p. 553. ISBN 0-415-38381-1. "Spallanzani - Uomo e scienziato" (in Italian). Il museo di Lazzaro Spallanzani. Archived from the original on 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2010-06-07. Nineteenth-Century Attitudes: Men of Science. "Nineteenth-Century Attitudes: Men of Science". Archived from the original on 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2008-01-15. Friedrich Ueberweg, History of Philosophy: From Thales to the Present Time. C. Scribner's sons v.1, 1887 Steve Fuller, Kuhn VS. Popper: The Struggle For The Soul Of Science. Columbia University Press 2004. Page 43. ISBN 0-231-13428-2 Science by American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1917. v.45 1917 Jan-Jun. Page 274 Archived 2017-03-02 at the Wayback Machine. Ross, Sydney (1962). "Scientist: The story of a word". Annals of Science. 18 (2): 65–85. doi:10.1080/00033796200202722. To be exact, the person coined the term scientist was referred to in Whewell 1834 only as "some ingenious gentleman." Ross added a comment that this "some ingenious gentleman" was Whewell himself, without giving the reason for the identification. Ross 1962, p.72. Whewell, William. Murray, John (ed.). "On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences By Mrs. Sommerville". The Quarterly Review. LI (March & June 1834): 54–68. Holmes, R (2008). The age of wonder: How the romantic generation discovered the beauty and terror of science. London: Harper Press. p. 449. ISBN 978-0-00-714953-7. Whewell, William. The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences Volume 1. Cambridge. p. cxiii. or Whewell, William (1847). The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences: Founded Upon Their History, Vol. 2. New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. p. 560.. In the 1847 second edition, moved to volume 2 page 560. "William Whewell (1794-1866) gentleman of science". Archived from the original on 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2007-05-19. Tamara Preaud, Derek E. Ostergard, The Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory. Yale University Press 1997. 416 pages. ISBN 0-300-07338-0 Page 36. "Everyone is a Scientist – Scientific Scribbles". Cyranoski, David; Gilbert, Natasha; Ledford, Heidi; Nayar, Anjali; Yahia, Mohammed (2011). "Education: The PhD factory". Nature. 472 (7343): 276–279. Bibcode:2011Natur.472..276C. doi:10.1038/472276a. PMID 21512548. "STEM education: To build a scientist". Nature. 523 (7560): 371–373. 2015. doi:10.1038/nj7560-371a. Gould, Julie (2016). "What's the point of the PhD thesis?". Nature. 535 (7610): 26–28. Bibcode:2016Natur.535...26G. doi:10.1038/535026a. PMID 27383968. Kruger, Philipp (2018). "Why it is not a 'failure' to leave academia". Nature. 560 (7716): 133–134. Bibcode:2018Natur.560..133K. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-05838-y. PMID 30065341. Lee, Adrian; Dennis, Carina; Campbell, Phillip (2007). "Nature's guide for mentors". Nature. 447 (7146): 791–797. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..791L. doi:10.1038/447791a. PMID 17568738. Kwok, Roberta (2017). "Flexible working: Science in the gig economy". Nature. 550: 419–421. doi:10.1038/nj7677-549a. Woolston, Chris (2007). Editorial (ed.). "Many junior scientists need to take a hard look at their job prospects". Nature. 550: 549–552. doi:10.1038/nj7677-549a. Lee, Adrian; Dennis, Carina; Campbell, Phillip (2007). "Graduate survey: A love–hurt relationship". Nature. 550 (7677): 549–552. doi:10.1038/nj7677-549a. Stockton, Nick (7 October 2014), "How did the Nobel Prize become the biggest award on Earth?", Wired, retrieved 3 September 2018 Foreword. National Academies Press (US). 1992. "The Brain: The Final Frontier?". November 2014. "The Last Frontier - Carnegie Mellon University | CMU". van Noorden, Richard (2015). "India by the numbers". Nature. 521 (7551): 142–143. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..142V. doi:10.1038/521142a. PMID 25971491. "Employment: Male majority". Nature. 542 (7642): 509. 2017-02-22. doi:10.1038/nj7642-509b. S2CID 256770781. Margaret A. Eisenhart, Elizabeth Finkel (1998). Women's Science: Learning and Succeeding from the Margins. University of Chicago Press. p. 18. External articles Further reading Alison Gopnik, "Finding Our Inner Scientist" Archived 2016-04-12 at the Wayback Machine, Daedalus, Winter 2004. Charles George Herbermann, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Science and the Church. The Encyclopedia press, 1913. v.13. Page 598. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962. Arthur Jack Meadows. The Victorian Scientist: The Growth of a Profession, 2004. ISBN 0-7123-0894-6. Science, The Relation of Pure Science to Industrial Research. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Page 511 onwards. Websites For best results, add a little inspiration – The Telegraph about What Inspired You?, a survey of key thinkers in science, technology and medicine Peer Review Journal Science on amateur scientists The philosophy of the inductive sciences, founded upon their history (1847) – Complete Text Audio-Visual "The Scientist", BBC Radio 4 discussion with John Gribbin, Patricia Fara and Hugh Pennington (In Our Time, Oct. 24, 2002) Authority control databases Edit this at Wikidata International FAST National Germany 2IsraelUnited StatesJapanCzech Republic 2 Other NARA Categories: ScientistsScience occupations 35 People with Higher IQs Than Einstein Elizabeth Yuko By Elizabeth Yuko Updated: Apr. 23, 2024 Facebook Flipboard Twitter Pinterest Email We're going to need another name to be synonymous with "genius." Advertisem*nt Albert Einstein Arrives in New YorkBETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES Who has the highest IQ? Intelligence is the type of thing that seems like it would be difficult to measure, and the truth is, it is. But that hasn’t stopped us from being fascinated by intelligence tests that attempt to assign a numerical value to how smart we are—and trying to figure out who has the highest IQ in the world. While there is no “standard” intelligence quotient (IQ) test, the scoring tends to be similar across the various versions, with 100 being considered an “average” IQ and anything 140 or above considered genius territory. And though new tests and revisions of existing tests have come and gone over the years, there are a handful that are most commonly used today, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, and Peabody Individual Achievement Test. In addition to the tests, there are many different types of intelligence itself, including emotional, musical, visual-spatial, naturalistic, and linguistic-verbal. This is all to say that we should take a person’s IQ scores with a grain (or a pound) of salt—yes, even Albert Einstein’s. In fact, though his IQ is commonly cited as being 160, that’s just an estimate; it’s unlikely that he ever took an IQ test during his lifetime. In fact, given that IQ tests are relatively recent inventions, there is no way of definitively knowing who has the highest IQ of all time. All of those caveats aside, here are 35 people with IQs (either based on testing or an estimate) higher than Einstein’s. Get Reader’s Digest’s Read Up newsletter for more knowledge, humor, cleaning, travel, tech and fun facts all week long. People-With-Higher-IQs-Than-EinsteinREX/SHUTTERSTOCK Jacob Barnett: IQ 170 Jacob Barnett was diagnosed with moderate to severe autism at two years old, and doctors predicted he’d never learn to tie his own shoes. Needless to say, he’s mastered that task. The American child prodigy finished grades 6 through 12 in less than a year, then went to college at age 10. He was a published physicist by the time he was 13. Now he’s 21 and working toward his PhD. Advertisem*nt People-With-Higher-IQs-Than-EinsteinMEDIAPUNCH/REX/SHUTTERSTOCK Judit Polgár: IQ 170 The Hungarian chess master is considered the best female chess player of all time. When she was 15 years and 4 months old in 1991, she was the youngest player to become an International Grandmaster. She’s reported to have an IQ of 170. Chess, by the way, is just one of the strategy board games that will help develop your smarts. Rick rosnerCOURTESY CAROLE ROSNER Rick Rosner: IQ 192–198 Rick Rosner has taken more than 30 IQ tests, revealing his IQ is between 192 and 198, depending on how the tests define their scores. Before the allegedly second-smartest man in the world became a TV writer, he worked as a bouncer, stripper, and nude model. He famously sued the ABC network for a faulty question after losing Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? at the $16,000 level, but lost the case. People-With-Higher-IQs-Than-EinsteinCOURTESY DR EVANGELOS KATSIOULIS Evangelos Katsioulis: IQ 198 With a score of 198, Evangelos Katsioulis, MD, MSc, MA, PhD, has the highest tested IQ in the world, according to the World Genius Directory. The Greek psychiatrist also has degrees in philosophy and medical research technology. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt People-With-Higher-IQs-Than-EinsteinANNE RYAN/AP/REX/SHUTTERSTOCK Sho Yano: IQ 200 American physician Sho Yano started college at age nine and earned an MD and PhD by the time he was 21. He started composing music when he was four, but he’s put his focus on child neurology. In case you were wondering, this is what it’s like to teach a genius. People-With-Higher-IQs-Than-EinsteinUNCREDITED/AP/REX/SHUTTERSTOCK Nathan Leopold: IQ 200 The infamous Nathan Leopold had an IQ of 200 and spoke nine languages by age 18, but he didn’t use his intelligence for the greater good. When he was 19, he and an accomplice were arrested for murder in 1924 after trying to commit the “perfect crime”—you know, the type of crime that never gets solved. Leopold spent 33 years in jail before being released on parole. He died in 1971. Marilyn vos SavantCOURTESY ETHAN HILL Marilyn vos Savant: IQ 228 When Marilyn vos Savant was 10 years old, an adult-level Stanford-Binet test revealed she had an IQ of 228, which later landed her a Guinness World Record until the company removed the category in 1990 because the numbers are considered inexact. She’s been answering philosophical and mathematical questions for Parade magazine readers in her “Ask Marilyn” column since 1986. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt People-With-Higher-IQs-Than-EinsteinITV/REX/SHUTTERSTOCK Ainan Cawley: IQ 263 This former Irish child genius, who’s now 21, is projected to have an IQ of 263. At eight years old, he was already taking third-year chemistry courses at Singapore Polytechnic, and by the time he was nine, he’d memorized the first 518 decimal places of pi. He also seems to have a knack for entertainment, having written the script and composed music for a short film called Reflection at age 12. Johann Wolfgang Von GoetheROGER VIOLLET/GETTY IMAGES Johann Goethe: IQ 210–225 When American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims set out to find the person with the highest IQ in history, he did so using a methodology that predicts a person’s IQ based on how much they accomplished every 10 years of their life. This came in handy when attempting to rank people who themselves predated IQ tests. Based on his own approach, Thims estimated that German Renaissance man Johann Goethe was the person with the highest IQ of all time, with a score ranging from 210 to 225. While typically labeled as a philosopher, Goethe was also an accomplished scientist and poet. RELATED: Can You Pass the World’s Shortest IQ Test? Chris Langan Via Gtl12345 Wikimedia.orgVIA GTL12345/WIKIMEDIA.ORG Christopher Langan: IQ 174–210 Routinely referred to as “the smartest man in America,” Christopher Langan is a former cowboy, current horse rancher, and an independent researcher and reality theorist. One of his signature works is his Cognition-Theoretic Model of the Universe, which he refers to as “the CTMU” and says is pronounced cat-mew. In a 2007 interview with Esquire, Langan told the magazine that it was “a true ‘Theory of Everything,’ a cross between John Archibald Wheeler’s ‘Participatory Universe’ and Stephen Hawking’s ‘Imaginary Time’ theory of cosmology.” Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt Cropped Image Of Violin against Black Background with sheet music and bowA. MARTIN UW PHOTOGRAPHY/GETTY IMAGES Marnen Laibow-Koser: IQ 268 When Marnen Laibow-Koser was tested as a child, he was given a projected IQ of 268. Now, he’s a composer and performing musician living in Randolph, Massachusetts. He has been both playing and composing music since the age of three. In case you were wondering (and if you’re a parent, you probably are), these are the signs your child could be gifted. graduation cap and gown close upATU IMAGES/GETTY IMAGES Adragon De Mello: IQ 400 In 1988, when Adragon De Mello graduated from the University of California, Santa Cruz, with a degree in computational mathematics at the age of 11, he was the youngest college graduate in the United States (a record he no longer holds). Though he was reported to have a projected IQ of 400, De Mello hasn’t been in the public eye much in the past 20 years. We do know that in 2001, when he was a 24-year-old “high-tech worker,” he took custody of his father who was dying of bladder cancer. Michael Kearney on the set of Million Dollar "Gold Rush"L. COHEN/GETTY IMAGES Michael Kearney: IQ 200–325 Michael Kearney—who graduated from the University of South Alabama with a bachelor’s degree in anthropology in 1994 at the age of 10—is the person who broke De Mello’s record. By the age of 22, Kearney had earned four undergraduate degrees in computer science, geology, and chemistry, in addition to his first degree in anthropology. Kearney has an IQ score that ranges from 200 to 325, depending on the test. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci, by Lattanzio Querena (1768-1853).DEA/D. DAGLI ORTI/GETTY IMAGES Leonardo da Vinci: IQ 180–220 While IQ tests weren’t around when Leonardo da Vinci was, it is now estimated that his score would have been between 180 and 220. This makes sense when you think about it: With skills ranging from art and science to music and architecture, da Vinci didn’t just work in different fields—he excelled at them. In fact, he was so ahead of his time that many of his inventions (like flying machines, the telescope, and the submarine) didn’t come to fruition until long after his death. Find out the secret messages he hid in his paintings. Sir Isaac Newton portraitIMAGNO/GETTY IMAGES Isaac Newton: IQ 190–200 Sir Isaac Newton is another example of a scientist—in this case, a physicist—far ahead of his time. Though he’s best known for his universal principles of gravity, the 17th-century thinker was also a mathematician, astronomer, and writer. It is estimated that his IQ score would fall between 190 and 200, depending on the measures used. Fun fact: Isaac Newton was one of the geniuses who made history in quarantine. Michigan State University entrance sign; East Lansing, MIWELLESENTERPRISES/GETTY IMAGES Michael Grost: IQ 200 In 1964, when Michael Grost first began his college career at Michigan State University (MSU), he was only 10 years old. Now in his 60s, Grost has undergraduate and Masters’s degrees from MSU, as well as a PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan. Reportedly, Grost has an IQ of 200. Currently, he is writing mystery and detective stories, and also enjoys classical music, poetry, film, art, and architecture. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt Circa 1515, Portrait of the Polish astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543)HULTON ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES Nicolaus Copernicus: IQ 160 Polish astronomer and mathematician Nicolaus Copernicus may have had an estimated IQ score ranging from 160 to 200, but his ideas weren’t always the most popular. For example, the Catholic Church banned his book De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) for more than two centuries. In it, he put forth the heliocentric model of the universe, which places the sun—and not Earth—at the center of the solar system. Looking to expand your own mind? Here are 24 astronomy facts you never learned in school. Kim Ung-Yong at age 6 months solving equationsBETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES Kim Ung-Yong: IQ 200–210 Somehow, Kim Ung-Yong has been dubbed both a “failed genius” and the person with the highest IQ of all time. The truth depends on who you ask—similar to his IQ score, which ranges from 200 to 210, depending on the test. Known for his ability to solve complex mathematical equations at the age of four, Ung-Yong was invited to work for NASA when he was eight years old. Though he worked there for a decade, he ultimately left the position because he was lonely, he told The Korea Herald in 2010. Nikola Tesla In His LaboratoryBETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES Nikola Tesla: IQ 160–310 Nikola Tesla, the Serbian-American inventor—and arch-rival of Thomas Edison—reportedly had an estimated IQ falling somewhere between 160 and 310, depending on the measure. Though he’s responsible for dreaming up (and, in some cases, creating) a wide range of new technologies, Tesla is best known for inventing the first alternating current (AC) motor and developing AC generation and transmission technology. In the final years of his life, Tesla’s mental health deteriorated, and he died alone in the New York hotel room where he’d resided. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt detail of lady justice statue on dark backgroundAEROGONDO/GETTY IMAGES Ramarni Wilfred: IQ 162 By the time Ramarni Wilfred got to preschool, he already knew how to read and write. When he was 10 years old, he wrote a paper on justice theory and was awarded a prize for his work by Oxford University. When Wilfred was 11, he took an IQ test and scored 162. Now 18, it’s unclear what this Londoner will do next, but in his downtime, he enjoys reading New Scientist, playing with his dog, and reading comic books. RELATED: What Is Practical Intelligence and Can It Be Improved? Adhara PerezVIA @ADHARAMAITE/INSTAGRAM Adhara Pérez: IQ 162 Initially, Adhara Pérez had a challenging childhood, including being diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome at the age of three and not fitting in at school. After her mother, Nallely Sanchez, sought professional advice regarding her daughter, Pérez was given an IQ test and got a score of 162. She finished elementary school by the age of five and high school by age eight. Now, at the age of 10, she is currently working on two online degrees and was recently offered a place at the International Air and Space Program. Madame Curie (1867-1934), noted physical chemist, poses in her Paris laboratory. Undated photograph.BETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES Marie Curie: IQ 180–200 Not only was Marie Curie the first woman to win the Nobel Prize, but she was also the first person to win it twice. Most of her work focused on radioactivity—discoveries that contributed to the development of X-rays used during surgery. Curie put her technology to work in World War I, where she served on the front lines as the head of radiological service for the international Red Cross. Her IQ is estimated to have been between 180 and 200. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt Philip Emeagwali Via Philipemeagwali InstagramVIA @PHILIPEMEAGWALI/INSTAGRAM Philip Emeagwali: IQ 190 In 1967, when Philip Emeagwali was 13 years old, he left school to participate in the Nigerian-Biafran war. After that, he obtained his high school equivalency, then completed an undergraduate degree in math at Oregon State University, followed by three graduate degrees in math, environmental engineering, and marine engineering. A computer scientist who is credited with developing microprocessor technology that exponentially sped up computers, his work paved the way for the development of the Internet. His IQ score is reported to be 190. RELATED: Black Inventors Who Made Your Life Easier William James Sidis, American child prodigy and mathematicianARCHIVE PHOTOS/GETTY IMAGES William Sidis: IQ 200–300 The name William Sidis might not sound familiar, but you probably do know something about his story, given that it was the basis for the movie Good Will Hunting. The child prodigy’s IQ scores ranged from 200 to 300, depending on the measure. Sadly, Sidis died at the age of 46 in 1944 from a stroke. Profile of Greek Mathematician HypatiaBETTMANN/GETTY IMAGES Hypatia: IQ 170–210 Though Hypatia was Greek, the 4th-century philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician lived in Egypt and the Eastern Roman Empire. Her IQ is estimated to have been between 170 and 210. Hypatia was also an inventor, creating the astrolabe for ship navigation, as well as devices for measuring the density of fluids. Those are just a few of the things you never knew were invented by women. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt Srinivasa RamanujanPUBLIC DOMAIN VIA WIKIMEDIA.ORG Srinivasa Ramanujan: IQ 185 Born in India in 1887, Srinivasa Ramanujan is one of the most influential mathematicians in the world. He made significant contributions to the analytical theory of numbers, as well as elliptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series. He had an estimated IQ of 185. Portrait of William Shakespeare from the title page of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays; copper engraving by Martin Droeshout, 1623.GRAPHICAARTIS/GETTY IMAGES William Shakespeare: IQ 210 William Shakespeare needs no introduction, but we’ll give him one, anyway. You already know that he was an English poet, playwright, and actor. Over the course of his lifetime, he completed 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two narrative poems, and a variety of other poems. What you may not know is that the Bard had an estimated IQ of 210. Not that much of a surprise when you think about it! RELATED: Everyday Phrases Invented by Shakespeare Bas relief fragment portraying CleopatraDEA PICTURE LIBRARY/GETTY IMAGES Cleopatra: IQ 180 Although she’s best known today for her beauty, eyeliner, and feminine wiles, back in Cleopatra’s time, it was her intellect that was the real draw. After all, she spoke up to 12 languages and was educated in mathematics, philosophy, oratory, and astronomy. And that’s on top of ruling Egypt for close to 30 years. Estimates put Cleopatra’s IQ score around 180. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt Terence TaoSTEVE JENNINGS/GETTY IMAGES Terence Tao: IQ 211–230 Even as a child, Terence Tao excelled in math. For example, he started learning calculus when he was seven years old…which was also the year he started high school. By the age of 20, Tao—also known as the “Mozart of Math”—earned his PhD from Princeton University. That same year (1996), he joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles, and was promoted to being a full professor four years later. His IQ scores range from 211 to 230, depending on the test. RELATED: Genius Brain Boosters You Can Do with Your Kids Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu attends a cabinet meeting of the new government at Chagall State Hall in the Knesset (Israeli parliament) in Jerusalem on May 24,she was advanced, it wasn’t until she started preschool that they realized how far ahead she was of other kids her age from an academic perspective. The Stanford-Binet test indicated that Ophelia’s IQ score was 171. But other than her extensive vocabulary and knowledge far beyond her years, her parents told the BBC that Ophelia (who’s now six) is still very much a child and enjoys the usual activities for someone her age. Garry Kasparov sitting with a chess boardMONDADORI PORTFOLIO/GETTY IMAGES Garry Kasparov: IQ 190+ Soviet-born chess master Garry Kasparov was considered the world’s best chess player for nearly two decades. In fact, when he was 22 years old, Kasparov became the youngest world chess champion in 1985. His IQ is reportedly in the 190s. Advertisem*nt Advertisem*nt Imperial College London facadeSTOCKINASIA/GETTY IMAGES Fabiola Mann: IQ 162 Back in 2012, when Fabiola Mann was 15 years old, she took an IQ test and received a score of 162. She is currently a medical student at Imperial College London. In a 2012 interview with the BBC, Mann said that she enjoys playing chess, and one day hopes to become a surgeon. Sources: Healthline: “Types of IQ Tests” Very Well Mind: “Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences” Business Insider: “The 40 smartest people of all time” New York Daily News: “Boy genius diagnosed with autism has IQ higher than Einstein” Esquire: “The Smartest Man in America” Big Think: “24 of the Smartest People Who Ever Lived” Advertisem*nt Originally Published: April 01, 2021 AUTHOR Elizabeth Yuko Elizabeth is an award-winning journalist and bioethicist in New York City. In addition to covering knowledge, culture, politics and history for Reader's Digest, she writes for the New York Times, Rolling Stone, Architectural Digest, the Atlantic, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, CNN, Teen Vogue, the History Channel and more. ALS Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools This is a good article. Click here for more information. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Motor neurone disease) This article is about the neurodegenerative disease. For other uses, see ALS (disambiguation). "Motor neuron disease" and "Motor neurone disease" redirect here. For a group of muscle-wasting disorders, see Motor neuron diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Other names Motor neurone disease (MND) Lou Gehrig's disease Charcot's disease[1] Diagram of a human nervous system highlighting the brain, spinal cord, motor neurons, and muscles of the body affected by ALS Parts of the nervous system affected by ALS, causing progressive symptoms in skeletal muscles throughout the body[2] Specialty Neurology Symptoms Early: Stiff muscles, muscle twitches, gradual increasing weakness[3] Later: Difficulty in speaking, swallowing, and breathing; respiratory failure[3] 10–15% experience frontotemporal dementia[2] Complications Falling (accident); Respiratory failure; Pneumonia; Malnutrition Usual onset 45–75 years[2] Causes Unknown (about 85%), genetic (about 15%) Risk factors Genetic risk factors; age; male sex; heavy metals; organic chemicals; smoking; electric shock; physical exercise; head injury[2] Diagnostic method Clinical diagnosis of exclusion based on progressive symptoms of upper and lower motor neuron degeneration in which no other explanation can be found. Supportive evidence from electromyography, genetic testing, and neuroimaging Differential diagnosis Multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease, Hereditary spastic paraplegia, Nerve compression syndrome, Diabetic neuropathy, Post-polio syndrome, Myasthenia gravis, Multiple sclerosis[4] Walker (mobility); Wheelchair; Non-invasive ventilation;[5] Feeding tube; Augmentative and alternative communication; symptomatic management Medication Riluzole, Edaravone, Sodium phenylbutyrate/ursodoxicoltaurine, Tofersen, Dextromethorphan/quinidine Prognosis Life expectancy highly variable but typically 2–4 years after diagnosis[6] Frequency Incidence: 1.6/100,000 individuals per year[6] Prevalence: 4.4/100,000 living individuals[6] Lifetime risk: 1 in 400 individuals[7] Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease in the United States, is a rare but terminal neurodegenerative disorder that results in the progressive loss of both upper and lower motor neurons that normally control voluntary muscle contraction.[3] ALS is the most common form of the motor neuron diseases.[8] ALS often presents in its early stages with gradual muscle stiffness, twitches, weakness, and wasting.[3] Motor neuron loss typically continues until the abilities to eat, speak, move, and, lastly, breathe are all lost.[3] While only 15% of people with ALS also fully develop frontotemporal dementia, an estimated 50% face at least some minor difficulties with thinking and behavior.[9] Depending on which of the aforementioned symptoms develops first, ALS is classified as limb-onset (begins with weakness in the arms or legs) or bulbar-onset (begins with difficulty in speaking or swallowing).[10] Most cases of ALS (about 90% to 95%) have no known cause, and are known as sporadic ALS.[3][11] However, both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved.[12] The remaining 5% to 10% of cases have a genetic cause, often linked to a history of the disease in the family, and these are known as familial ALS (hereditary).[6][13] About half of these genetic cases are due to disease-causing variants in one of four specific genes.[14] The diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms, with testing conducted to rule out other potential causes.[3] A feeding tube may help maintain weight and nutrition.[18] Death is usually caused by respiratory failure.[19] The disease can affect people of any age, but usually starts around the age of 60.[19] The average survival from onset to death is two to four years, though this can vary, and about 10% of those affected survive longer than ten years.[20] Descriptions of the disease date back to at least 1824 by Charles Bell.[21] In 1869, the connection between the symptoms and the underlying neurological problems was first described by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, who in 1874 began using the term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.[21] Classification ALS is a motor neuron disease, which is a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscles of the body.[3] Other motor neuron diseases include primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), progressive bulbar palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, and monomelic amyotrophy (MMA).[22] As a disease, ALS itself can be classified in a few different ways: by which part of the motor neurons are affected; by the parts of the body first affected; whether it is genetic; and the age at which it started. Each individual diagnosed with the condition will sit at a unique place at the intersection of these complex and overlapping subtypes, which presents a challenge to diagnosis, understanding, and prognosis.[23] Subtypes of motor neuron disease Classic ALS involves neurons in the brain and spinal cord (upper motor neurons, highlighted red), as well as the lower motor neurons, which go from the spinal cord to the muscles, highlighted teal.[24] ALS can be classified by the types of motor neurons that are affected.[2] To successfully control any voluntary muscle in the body, a signal must be sent from the motor cortex in the brain down the upper motor neuron as it travels down the spinal cord. There, it connects via a synapse to the lower motor neuron which connects to the muscle itself. Damage to either the upper or lower motor neuron, as it makes its way from the brain to muscle, causes different types of symptoms.[24] Damage to the upper motor neuron typically causes spasticity including stiffness and increased tendon reflexes, and/or clonus, while damage to the lower motor neuron typically causes weakness, muscle atrophy, and fasciculations.[25] Classical, or classic ALS, involves degeneration to both the upper motor neurons in the brain and the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord.[6][2] Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) involves degeneration of only the upper motor neurons, and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) involves only the lower motor neurons. There is debate over whether PLS and PMA are separate diseases or simply variants of ALS.[9] Main ALS Subtypes Upper motor neuron degeneration Lower motor neuron degeneration Classical ALS Yes Yes Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) Yes No Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) No Yes Classical ALS accounts for about 70% of all cases of ALS and can be subdivided into where symptoms first appear as these are usually focussed to one region of the body at initial presentation before later spread. Limb-onset ALS (also known as spinal-onset) and bulbar-onset ALS.[9] Limb-onset ALS begins with weakness in the hands, arms, feet, and/or legs[10] and accounts for about two-thirds of all classical ALS cases.[9] Bulbar-onset ALS begins with weakness in the muscles of speech, chewing, and swallowing[24] and accounts for about 25% of classical ALS cases.[6] A rarer type of classical ALS affecting around 3% of patients is respiratory-onset,[9] in which the initial symptoms are difficulty breathing (dyspnea) upon exertion, at rest, or while lying flat (orthopnea).[26] Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a subtype of the overall ALS category which accounts for about 5% of all cases and only affects the upper motor neurons in the arms, legs, and bulbar region.[27] However, more than 75% of people with apparent PLS go on to later develop lower motor neuron signs within four years of symptom onset, meaning that a definitive diagnosis of PLS cannot be made until several years have passed.[28] PLS has a better prognosis than classical ALS, as it progresses slower, results in less functional decline, does not affect the ability to breathe, and causes less severe weight loss than classical ALS.[27] Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is another subtype that accounts for about 5% of the overall ALS category and affects lower motor neurons in the arms, legs, and bulbar region.[27] While PMA is associated with longer survival on average than classical ALS, it is still progressive over time, eventually leading to respiratory failure and death.[9] As with PLS developing into classical ALS, PMA can also develop into classical ALS over time if the lower motor neuron involvement progresses to include upper motor neurons, in which case the diagnosis might be changed to classic ALS.[28] Rare isolated variants of ALS Isolated variants of ALS have symptoms that are limited to a single region for at least a year; they progress more slowly than classical ALS and are associated with longer survival.[2] These regional variants of ALS can only be considered as a diagnosis should the initial symptoms fail to spread to other spinal cord regions for an extended period of time (at least 12 months).[29] Flail arm syndrome is characterized by lower motor neuron damage affecting the arm muscles, typically starting with the upper arms symmetrically and progressing downwards to the hands.[2] Flail leg syndrome is characterized by lower motor neuron damage leading to asymmetrical weakness and wasting in the legs starting around the feet.[2] Isolated bulbar palsy is characterized by upper or lower motor neuron damage in the bulbar region (in the absence of limb symptoms for at least 20 months),[30] leading to gradual onset of difficulty with speech (dysarthria) and swallowing (dysphagia). Illustration showing the range of upper and lower motor neuron involvement in the two most common types of ALS (top row) and three of the most common rare subtypes of ALS (bottom row) Age of onset ALS can also be classified based on the age of onset. While the peak age of onset is 58 to 63 for sporadic ALS and 47 to 52 for genetic ALS,[19] about 10% of all cases of ALS begin before age 45 ("young-onset" ALS), and about 1% of all cases begin before age 25 ("juvenile" ALS).[24] People who develop young-onset ALS are more likely to be male, less likely to have bulbar onset of symptoms, and more likely to have a slower progression of the disease.[28] Juvenile ALS is more likely to be genetic in origin than adult-onset ALS; the most common genes associated with juvenile ALS are FUS, ALS2, and SETX.[31] Although most people with juvenile ALS live longer than those with adult-onset ALS, some of them have specific mutations in FUS and SOD1 that are associated with a poor prognosis.[32] Late onset (after age 65) is generally associated with a more rapid functional decline and shorter survival.[33] Signs and symptoms The disorder causes muscle weakness, atrophy, and muscle spasms throughout the body due to the degeneration of the upper motor and lower motor neurons. Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system are generally unaffected, meaning the majority of people with ALS maintain hearing, sight, touch, smell, and taste.[3] Initial symptoms The start of ALS may be so subtle that the symptoms are overlooked.[3] The earliest symptoms of ALS are muscle weakness or muscle atrophy, typically on one side of the body. Other presenting symptoms include trouble swallowing or breathing, cramping, or stiffness of affected muscles; muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg; or slurred and nasal speech. The parts of the body affected by early symptoms of ALS depend on which motor neurons in the body are damaged first.[34] In limb-onset ALS, the first symptoms are in the arms or the legs. If the legs are affected first, people may experience awkwardness, tripping, or stumbling when walking or running; this is often marked by walking with a "dropped foot" that drags gently on the ground. If the arms are affected first, they may experience difficulty with tasks requiring manual dexterity, such as buttoning a shirt, writing, or turning a key in a lock.[35] In bulbar-onset ALS, the first symptoms are difficulty speaking or swallowing. Speech may become slurred, nasal in character, or quieter. There may be difficulty with swallowing and loss of tongue mobility. A smaller proportion of people experience "respiratory-onset" ALS, where the intercostal muscles that support breathing are affected first.[19] Over time, people experience increasing difficulty moving, swallowing (dysphagia), and speaking or forming words (dysarthria). Symptoms of upper motor neuron involvement include tight and stiff muscles (spasticity) and exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), including an overactive gag reflex.[24] While the disease does not cause pain directly, pain is a symptom experienced by most people with ALS caused by reduced mobility.[36] Symptoms of lower motor neuron degeneration include muscle weakness and atrophy, muscle cramps, and fleeting twitches of muscles that can be seen under the skin (fasciculations).[25] Progression Although the initial site of symptoms and subsequent rate of disability progression vary from person to person, the initially affected body region is usually the most affected over time, and symptoms usually spread to a neighbouring body region. For example, symptoms starting in one arm usually spread next to either the opposite arm or to the leg on the same side.[24] Bulbar-onset patients most typically get their next symptoms in their arms rather than legs, arm-onset patients typically spreads to the legs before the bulbar region, and leg-onset patients typically spread to the arms rather than the bulbar region.[37] Over time, regardless of where symptoms began, most people eventually lose the ability to walk or use their hands and arms independently. Less consistently, they may lose the ability to speak and to swallow food. It is the eventual development of weakness of the respiratory muscles, with the loss of ability to cough and to breathe without support, that is ultimately life-shortening in ALS.[5] The rate of progression can be measured using the ALS Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R), a 12-item instrument survey administered as a clinical interview or self-reported questionnaire that produces a score between 48 (normal function) and 0 (severe disability).[38] The ALSFRS-R is the most frequently used outcome measure in clinical trials[39] and is used by doctors to track disease progression.[40] Though the degree of variability is high and a small percentage of people have a much slower progression, on average people with ALS lose about 1 ALSFRS-R point per month.[41] Brief periods of stabilization ("plateaus") and even small reversals in ALSFRS-R score are not uncommon, due to the fact the tool is subjective, can be affected by medication, and different forms of compensation for changes in function.[42] However, it is rare (

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